Skip to main content

Full text of "Pictures at an exhibition : Illinois Wesleyan University : 1968-86 : an academic memoir"

See other formats

fc 1 

Pictures At An ExhiDition: 

Illinois Wesleyan University: 1968-1986 

L \n Aoa 

obert b. Eckle}/ 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 

Commencement 1982 

Pictures at 
an Exhibition 

Illinois Wesleyan University, 


An Academic Memoir 

Robert S. Eckley 



Jerry Biddle or student assistants: 
Pages (frontpiece), 5,17,21, 27, 33, 45, 48,51, 56, 63, 70, 72, 80, 82, 
109, 117,120, 126,131, 135 

Robert George: 
Pages (cover), 38, 86, 89, 94, 99, 102, 138, 139, 164 

Henry Etter: 
Pages 4,11, 12, 35 

Robert S. Eckley: 
Pages 141 

State Farm staff photographer: 
Page 115 

Fabry Studios: 
Page 6 

Table of 




Chapter 1 



Chapter 2 



Chapter 3 

Faculty and Staff 


Chapter 4 

Academic Programs: Curriculum 


Chapter 5 

The Campus: Wesleyans "Academical Village" 


Chapter 6 

Financing the University 


Chapter 7 

Volunteers — Trustees, Methodists, Alumni, and Friends 


Chapter 8 

"His Almost Chosen People" 



A. Faculty, 1968-86 


B. Administrative Staff Supervisors, 1968-86 


C. Trustees, 1968-86 


D. Vita-Robert S. Eckley 


In recognition of their contributions 

and service to IWU and the 

encouragement and friendship 

extended to me: 

William T. Beadles, 1924-68 
R. Dwight Drexler, 1934-79 
Jack Horenberger, 1942-81 




odest Mussorgsky composed his "Pictures at an 
Exhibition" in 1874 for the piano in memory of his friend Victor Hartmann, an 
artist and architect. His inspiration came from a posthumous exhibit in St. 
Petersburg of Hartmann' s work. Apparently, Mussorgsky never considered an 
orchestration of the "Pictures," but others did, beginning with Mikhail 
Tushmalov in 1891 and continuing through Vladimir Ashkenazy in 1982, a total 
of nineteen times, according to Leonard Slatkin, conductor of the St. Louis 
Symphony. During the Chicago Symphony Orchestra's one-hundredth season 
in November 1990, Slatkin conducted the Orchestra in a combination "Pictures" 
using orchestrations from nine different composers, rather than the Ravel 
orchestration with which we are familiar. On hearing this performance, I was 
struck by the similarities and differences of these "Pictures" and recognized 
that my pictures of Illinois Wesley an University from 1968 to 1986 would differ 
from those of others who experienced the same events as the variety exhibited 
in the many orchestrations of Mussorgsky's work. This is how my "Pictures at 
an Exhibition — Illinois Wesleyan University: 1968-1986" originated. 

I conceived of six different word pictures of the University during the period 
to tell its story from various vantage points plus two bookend sketches or chap- 
ters that are more personal in content. These six are the following: students, 
faculty and staff, academic programs, the campus, finance, and volunteers — the 
last three intermixing the business and support aspects of the University. These 
pictures are neither objective history nor artistry; they are my attempt to relay 
how it was at Illinois Wesleyan during almost two decades in its development. 
Others may remember it differently, and there is much more to be told than it is 
possible to squeeze into six pictures and two sketches. 

I am intensely aware that not very much that happens in a complex institu- 
tion of higher education, even a small one, is the result of one individual. 
Therefore, I am concerned that this memoir not underrepresent the contribu- 
tions of others to the chronology presented. Nevertheless, it probably does 
because I am more informed of my own involvement and may be less aware of 
the efforts of others that were equally or even more significant in the events 
recounted. Also, so many were active — roughly a thousand faculty, staff, and 


trustees, plus unmentioned volunteers — that the names included are necessari- 
ly limited. I hope the lists contained in the appendices are a small recognition 
of all who labored here. 

Each chapter has been reviewed by two or three people knowledgeable of 
the content. I acknowledge their help in improving the accuracy of the pictures 
presented. They shall remain anonymous to avoid any responsibility for the 
chronicle; I must be responsible for the accuracy and interpretation of the pre- 

My son, Robert George, a professional photographer, has helped in selecting, 
printing, and in several cases, photographing the pictures that accompany the 
text. He also assisted by reviewing several of the chapters. My daughter, Jane 
E. Lennon, an attorney, improved the presentation by her comments on the 
entire manuscript. Paul, an investment analyst, reviewed and made suggestions 
on the chapter on finance. The contributions of my younger daughter, Rebecca 
E. Melchert, were indirect but real. She became the musician that I could only 
contemplate, and accepted the encouragement and facilities offered by the 
School of Music to assist her development. She was also neglected more by my 
over-engagement at Wesleyan because she was only eleven when we arrived — I 
missed most of her instrumental and dance recitals and all of her many swim- 
ming performances. As always in my endeavors, my wife Nell has played a 
key role in inspiring and encouraging the preparation of my pictures. Keenly 
interested in this narrative, she fully expressed her reaction to each chapter 
without attempting to control the style or the content. In truth, it is her story as 
well as mine. 

Morris B. Abram, an attorney who was president of Brandeis University, 
made the following statements at the Emory University commencement in 
1972: "Most men are not as good as they pretend to be nor as bad as their ene- 
mies paint them. No man is always truthful, especially to himself, and no man 
lies all the time even to himself. " I think that he is right and that it applies to 
women, too. 

December, 1992 

Chapter 1 Promenade 

Chapter 1 

"Upon the subject of education,... I can only say that I view it as the most impor- 
tant subject which we as a people can be engaged in." A. Lincoln, 1832. 


n my forty-sixth birthday, Dr. Dale Pitcher called to 
inquire about my interest in the presidency of Illinois Wesleyan University. 
Pitcher was a member of the search committee and we had become acquainted 
with one another several years before when he was District Superintendent of 
the Peoria area of the Methodist Church and I had been lay leader of the First 
Methodist Church there. The timing of his call was fortuitous. In the immediate 
circumstance, I was leaving for Europe four days later. In the longer view, if the 
connection with Illinois Wesleyan had not occurred as it did, the likelihood is 
high that I would have stayed in the work I enjoyed at Caterpillar. At the time, 
it included economic research, pricing, production scheduling, and product 
control, each involving a global dimension. 

Nell and I met with the search committee of seven ministers (as the by-laws 
then prescribed) and the officers of the Board on a rainy October 30 at the 
Illinois House, a local hotel. I was the first candidate to be interviewed and 
both sides were feeling their way along. On the way home Nell and I were 
undecided as to whether we would be interested if an offer did follow. Again, 
by chance, the chairman of the search committee was the Assistant to the 
Bishop, Dr. Harold Loyd, whom we had known and entertained in our home 
when he was the associate minister of our church. Perhaps the initial ingredi- 
ents for a match had been sown several years before through our acquaintance 
with these two committee members. (The other members were, in addition to 
Loyd and Pitcher, William Bennett, Clifford C. Brown, Jack North, Charles M. 
Smith, and James K. White. Officers of the Board in attendance were Paul 
Allison, John Dickinson, and Hugh Henning.) About five weeks later, Loyd 
called to inform me that I was the first choice among the four candidates who 
had been interviewed, and to establish a second meeting. The timing was once 

Chapter 1 Promenade 

more fortunate, for I was departing for Tokyo the following day. 
Consequently, we met with the committee for a second time on January 3, 1968, 
at the home of Paul Allison, then president of the Board of Trustees. The com- 
mittee extended an offer which we accepted, although I had no written appoint- 
ment terms until I was on the job seven months later. Mutual trust and confi- 
dence worked in those days, as it did throughout my relationship with the 
Board officers. 

Ten days later, we met with our predecessors, Lloyd and Martha Bertholf, 
who were most cooperative and helpful in assisting with the transition. (I sub- 
sequently prevailed on Lloyd, because of his good relations with the Central 
Illinois Conference of the United Methodist Church, to complete the revision of 
the University's charter and by-laws to eliminate total control of the University 
by the church, which had become anachronistic. The revision also reduced the 
size of the Board from forty-eight to thirty-nine members.) Meetings with the 
faculty committee followed—Carl Neumeyer, chairman (music), Bunyan 
Andrew (history), Wendell Hess (chemistry), Rupert Kilgore (art), and Doris 
Meyers (philosophy) — and subsequently, students — Jim Dorsey, Beth Glosser, 
Durry Monsma, and Trudi Rippe, all seniors. 

I was duly elected by the Board of Trustees on February 13, and the whole 
process went public. We regretted leaving Caterpillar and Peoria because of 
our long relationships; many friends and business associates were gracious and 
interested in the venture we were about to undertake. A busy spring and early 
summer followed, and we were too close to Bloomington to ignore requests 
from there. My immediate responsibility at Caterpillar was to assist the compa- 
ny in an attempted acquisition of Chicago Pneumatic. I spoke to the Wesleyan 

Quadrangle landing 1968 

Chapter 1 Promenade 

faculty at their March meeting, made a helicopter visit directly onto the 
Quadrangle under the auspices of the Peoria Journal Star, and talked and 
responded to questions at a student reception. 

Although I had direct knowledge of the Berkeley Free Speech Movement in 
1964 and the revolutionary content of the Students for a Democratic Society 
(SDS) Port Huron statement of 1962, 1 was not prepared for the strike at 
Columbia University in April 1968 or the 
riots at the Democratic Party convention 
in Chicago that summer. When attempt- 
ing to find my replacement at Caterpillar, 
I called a faculty friend at Columbia and 
was amazed to find him under his desk 
in Fayerweather Hall, dodging the brick- 
bats flying through the window! Nell 
confessed later that there were many 
nights during our first two years when 
she wondered what we were doing here 
and why we had left the comfortable 
precincts of corporate America. 

Although the initial years were diffi- 
cult, our reasons for coming to Illinois 
Wesleyan were clear. I had long been 
interested in higher education and liberal 
arts colleges in particular because of their 
exemplary record in preparing people for 
leadership positions. Their performance 
is enhanced by a close relationship 
between faculty and students in a teach- 
ing environment. Wesleyan' s commit- 
ment to the fine arts and the existence of pre-professional programs in business, 
nursing, and teaching as well as the liberal arts were compatible with my edu- 
cational interests and philosophy. 

My background matched the institution in some important respects. Both 
sides of my family had lived in Central Illinois for four generations, and all of 
my years had been spent in the Midwest except for World War II and graduate 
school. My paternal grandfather had been a life-long minister in the Central 
Illinois Conference, serving pastorates in nine locations. He was also a gradu- 
ate of Hedding College, which was folded into Illinois Wesleyan. My uncle and 
mentor, Wayne Eckley, who taught nuclear engineering for many years at the 
U.S. Naval Academy, was a 1927 Wesleyan graduate in mathematics and physics. 

I was cognizant of the fact that an individual could have a significant impact 
on a small institution, while few leaders of large organizations have an oppor- 
tunity to turn them more than a few degrees. Centrally located in the Midwest, 
Wesleyan was a good institution capable of being a distinguished one. Two of 
the key requirements would be to increase its academic and financial strength, 
something I thought I knew how to do. 

Chapter 1 Promenade 


"In such a state of society, the master fears and flatters his scholars, and the schol- 
ars despise their masters and tutors...; old men condescend to the young and are 
full of pleasantry and gaiety; they are loath to be thought morose and authorita- 
tive, and therefore they adopt the manners of the young." 

Plato, The Republic 

Ten years after 1968, an ABC television retrospective characterized the 
events in that year as "a crack in time.' 7 In a twenty-year review by Time, 1968 
was described as "a knife blade that severed past from future/' Early in the 
year, the Tet offensive was launched by the Viet Cong, followed on March 31 by 
President Lyndon Johnson's announcement that "I shall not seek, and I will not 
accept, the nomination of my party as President." Four days later, Martin 
Luther King was assassinated in Memphis leading to violence in 126 cities. 
Students occupied five key Columbia University buildings that same month. 
With the murder of Bobby Kennedy in early June, we learned that the killing 
had not ended; perhaps the disintegration of society as we had known it was 

accelerating. Whatever the combination 
of events that gained momentum as the 
1960s careened along — the civil rights 
movement, dissatisfaction over Vietnam, 
moral redefinitions — they had their most 
poignant effect on the young. These 
events are critical to any understanding 
of the story of colleges and universities 
during this time. 

I had scarcely occupied the office 
overlooking the Illinois Wesleyan 
^ 1^ Quadrangle when Soviet tanks rolled 

|j^_ into Prague and the riots occurred at the 

b Democratic convention in Chicago, 

at ^^ m Totalitarian repression and uncontrolled 

« fw$ m democracy are unpleasant spectacles, 

B flk h even if they stem from different causes. 

K B m But the one was close by, in a familiar 

■ I Syi city, whether its catch-phrase was "the 

whole world is watching" or in retro- 
spect, "no one was killed." The close- 
ness, mentally as well as geographic 
proximity, was emphasized in the com- 
mander of the Illinois National Guard. Brigadier General Richard T. Dunn, the 
senior partner of the law firm handling the University's work, led the troops 
backing up the Chicago police force. 

Chapter 1 Promenade 

In the fall of 1968 we elected our first president by a minority vote since 
Wilson in 1912, although the white backlash expressed in the 13.5 percent of the 
votes cast for George Wallace could scarcely be called a groundswell. I spoke to 
community Thanksgiving services both in Normal and Bloomington under the 
title 'This Unhappy and Discouraged Country" from a line in a London 
Economist article. All of the shocking events set out above were enumerated. 
My text was from Isaiah, including the opening line, "Sons have I reared and 
brought up but they have rebelled against me." Although it ended with some 
words of hope, the talk was my assessment of what had gone wrong and the 
major problems we faced as a people. 

Student unrest across the country continued to build. A year after the 
upheaval at Columbia, Harvard was immobilized by a student strike. A gradu- 
ally widening circle of institutions was involved — as many as a third of the 
total — including most major universities. 

By 1970 the disruptions were taking on a meaner and hardened look. The 
militant faction of the SDS, the Weathermen, included the son of the chairman 
of Commonwealth Edison in Chicago and Diana Oughton, daughter of a 
Central Illinois banker and member of the state legislature. She was killed 
along with two others while making pipe bombs possibly intended for use at 
Columbia University. The invasion of Cambodia by U.S. forces began on April 
30, and protests followed on most college and university campuses. Four stu- 
dents were killed and nine wounded when national guardsmen fired on a 
protest gathering at Kent State on May 4. Ten days later at Jackson State in 
Mississippi, police shooting in an incident apparently unrelated to the war 
wounded nine and killed two students. That May marked the peak of campus 
violence. From that time, the tempo of discord receded, gradually at first, but 
clearly following the withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam. 

Adaptation to change is never easy, particularly for institutions with as 
many traditions as universities. In the summer of 1969, my invited Argus editor- 
ial began as follows: 

"There are times when the forces that tear society into factions appear stronger 
than the common ties that bind people together. This was most evident and criti- 
cal in America in the years leading up to the Civil War. Recently we have awak- 
ened both here and abroad to a new tension, new at least in its ferocity, between 
students and the institutions established for their intellectual nurture, between 
youth and age, between demands for radical change and more gradual evolution." 

I then tried to suggest some ways for us to find greater unity. In 1970, 1 

"This is clearly not 1932, nor is it 1860, but the social upheaval of the sixties, par- 
ticularly among the young, suggests that we have launched an extensive reexami- 
nation of traditional American values not unlike those earlier periods of crisis and 
renewal. ...We have the opportunity to participate together in a critical period of 

Chapter 1 Promenade 


"Things fall apart; the center cannot hold; 
Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,..." 

The Second Coming, W.B. Yeats, 1921. 

William Butler Yeats' lines were written for another cataclysm at another 
time, but they were much quoted in the late 1960s. They only seemed to apply 
then, as we later learned. The difficulties of youth and higher education were 
extensive, although they were less in smaller institutions than in larger ones 
where identities were more ambiguous and more subject to cliche. Where peo- 
ple know one another, there is an increased measure of civility. Nevertheless, 
we had our tense moments and days, as almost all institutions did. 

My initial difficulties were much more mundane, more earthbound con- 
cerns. A budgetary deficit of $90,000 had been indicated the previous spring 
for my first year, but soon after my arrival on the campus it became apparent 
that the shortfall would be almost twice that large, approaching 4 percent of the 
operating budget. Although not intended by the prior administration, several 
things had gone the wrong way. These included an earlier than necessary cut- 
off in admission acceptances resulting from excessive apprehension about 
housing availability by the person responsible and the hiring of five additional 
faculty members. Nonetheless, it was embarrassing and perplexing to be faced 
with the immediate need for belt tightening. 

This was further exacerbated by commitments to build a dormitory, an 
observatory, and a president's house. In addition, there was the need for an 
early beginning on a fine arts complex, for which a federal grant was in hand 
but the bulk of the financing was yet to be arranged. On September 16, the four 
officers of the Board met with me at breakfast to explain that we should lend 
the Phi Gamma Delta chapter a quarter of a million dollars at 5 percent interest 
to build a new house, as had been done for the Tau Kappa Epsilon chapter 
three years before. One of them was a TKE alumnus, so it was embarrassing to 
deny equal treatment. I resisted by pointing out that: (1) we were building a 
sizeable commitment exceeding any reasonable expectation of funds becoming 
available, thus taxing our already meager endowment, (2) other applicants 
were waiting in the wings and would expect similar assistance, and (3) interest 
rates were then half again as high as the suggested rate, rendering the project 
infeasible with the revenue the chapter could charge. A few moments of awk- 
ward silence followed. Then Hugh Henning, the Treasurer, said he agreed with 
me, and the others came around one by one. Previously I had banked some 
goodwill by turning down the first architectural plans for the new president's 
house, thereby postponing the project and saving a third of the cost. 

Fortunately, an austere spending policy, a strong upturn in current gifts, and 
several favorable developments in endowment income enabled the University 
to end up in the black for the year, something we thought might require two 


Chapter 1 Promenade 

years or more to attain. Thereafter, we were able to achieve current revenues in 
excess of expenditures during the remainder of my tenure, despite at least two 
more periods of necessary austerity — a goal important for a college seeking 
improvement and starting with too small an endowment. 

A second terrestrial problem surfaced even before I had an opportunity to 
assume office. I had arranged to spend some time with Lloyd Bertholf to obtain 
his advice and briefing on three occasions before taking over responsibility on 
August 1 . These meetings turned into all-day sessions, and after one of them I 
was accosted by the Student Center manager waiting at the end of the day 
beneath a tree on the Quadrangle. He could not get along with the food service 
manager and asked that I choose between one or the other. After checking with 
the business manager, Phil Kasch, and finding that there were no good alterna- 
tives, I accommodated him by terminating his position. A few months later the 
food service manager resigned, and we contracted with Saga to operate the food 
service, a happy decision despite occasional and predictable student complaints. 

I was soon made aware of other personnel difficulties in the form of faculty 
fights or extreme incompatibilities in four liberal arts departments — English, 
mathematics, philosophy, and speech. Key personnel also were unable to get 
along in the registrar's office. In each of these instances, a change in leadership 
ultimately had to be made, but hours were consumed in assessing the difficul- 
ties and attempting reconciliations. 

More important to the future of the University, academic deficiencies exist- 
ed, perhaps partially reflected in these controversies. Problems had been iden- 
tified in the Liberal Arts College by the North Central Association visiting team 
in 1967, but not spelled out in much detail. Reaccreditation had been granted 
for five years rather than ten, and the University was asked to work with a 
North Central consultant in the interim. A rather strong recommendation was 
made to add a Dean of Liberal Arts, and a search was initiated. It should be 
added that Lloyd Bertholf did not agree with all of North Central's criticisms, 
and it is my firm conviction after reviewing Wesley an' s history that he had 
done much to improve its academic quality from where he found it in 1958. 

Another North Central team recommendation was that a set of faculty by- 
laws or a constitution be adopted to regularize faculty responsibilities. I 
appointed a committee for this task in 1968, and the document was adopted by 
the faculty in early 1970. 

We had a large number of faculty replacements to make in 1969, and I was 
determined that we should use each opening to upgrade qualifications as much 
as possible. I was shocked to learn that not all department heads and faculty 
leaders concurred with this approach, and I soon appreciated that young, eager 
talent could be threatening. I pressed on and for this reason made recruiting 
trips personally to several universities — Chicago, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, 
Michigan State, and Northwestern in my first two years. I believe that the 
establishment of new and higher standards for faculty recruiting was helpful, 
yet there were isolated pockets of resistance to improvement which continued 
to frustrate me through the years. 

Chapter 1 Promenade 

The Argus ran a five-part series on black students at Illinois Wesleyan begin- 
ning in late September 1968. Articles were written by a faculty member, two 
black students, the admission director, and a sorority member. Shortly after it 
was completed, the Black Students' Association (BSA) came to see me and pre- 
sented "demands" for 10 percent black faculty and staff by the following 
September. They also insisted that candidates be interviewed by the BSA. 
Since there were no black faculty or administrative staff the issue was valid. 
However, we had a representative number for the area labor force among our 
clerical and maintenance employees. The Student Senate endorsed the propos- 
al by a surprisingly close vote of 25 to 22, indicating both a recognition of the 
unlikely possibility of hiring twelve black faculty in a year and the opposition 
to black demands particularly among fraternity and sorority representatives. I 
responded by pledging extra efforts and offering to meet periodically to discuss 
the situation. Shortly afterward, I met with the entire black student group and 
we had a lengthly and frank discussion. Subsequently, I established a Black 
Student Concerns committee and met with their leaders several times each 

A more difficult situation arose in the fall of 1969. Fred Hampton, chairman 
of the Illinois Black Panther Party, spoke in the Main Lounge on October 29. 
Little more than a month later, he and another young man from Peoria, whom I 
had met, were killed in a shoot-out by the Chicago police when they were 
asleep in their beds. Angry and frustrated, our black students went to the flag- 
pole and lowered the flag in mourning. The security director asked them to 
raise the flag, which they refused to do. Somehow, the Bloomington police 
heard there was a confrontation underway and came to the campus. The secur- 
ity director was able to get them to leave by assuring them that we had no seri- 
ous problem. 

Several hours later, however, a considerable crowd gathered, and it looked 
like a confrontation was developing. I called the four coaches, who knew the 
huskier men, and asked them to talk with the white students and urge them to 
let the black students keep the flag at half staff. They were successful and a 
confrontation was averted. The incident ended with an amusing twist. As 
darkness approached in late afternoon on one of the shortest days of the year, 
Mrs. Louise Whitehall, secretary to the academic dean and a large woman near- 
ing retirement age, marched out and removed the flag. The few students still 
milling around the flagpole were too astonished to offer any opposition. She 
folded it carefully in appropriate military, three-cornered style and brought it to 
my office. 

The ups and downs of college life during this period can be illustrated by the 
events of the inaugural week which ended on March 22, 1969. Our first candi- 
date for dean of the Liberal Arts College was interviewed on Monday. He was 
a major university department head who seemed able to me, but he was reject- 
ed by faculty interviewers on the basis that he was too authoritarian. Late that 
afternoon, the astronaut Frank Borman piloted his own jet into Bloomington. 
He was to receive an honorary degree at the Founders' Convocation the follow- 
ing day. He generated more interest and excitement than any other visitor to 

Chapter 1 Promenade 

Apollo 8 Commander laying Observatory cornerstone. Mrs. Mark Evans 
and Congressman Les Arends left and right of Borman. 

the campus during my years at Wesleyan. Our principal speaker at the convo- 
cation was William Arrowsmith, an Oxford-trained classics professor from the 
University of Texas and an Aristophanes translator from the ancient Greek. 
Although he was a capable speaker and teacher, he came rather unprepared 
with an inch of notes which he fumbled through as he pondered the plight and 
fate of higher education. His message was somber. Borman took the opportu- 
nity afforded in acknowledging his degree to challenge Arrowsmith in his 
assessment. For a man just returned from circling the moon, nothing was 
impossible. It was a classic clash of cultures — the contemplative humanities 
professor versus the active scientist- engineer. Borman captivated the audience 
and the campus. 

The same day Andrew Young met with students under the sponsorship of 
the Religious Activities Commission. More ominous, the next night a group of 
200 Wesleyan students joined a larger group from Illinois State University and 
marched to the courthouse. There was no singular, identifiable motivating 
cause — there had been panty raids, women's hours protests, and the weather 
was warm. They were met at the courthouse by sheriffs deputies and state 
police equipped with helmets and bludgeons. Fortunately, the students turned 
back and the incident ended. Meanwhile, the festivities of the week continued 
to unfold with composer Iain Hamilton appearing for the Symposium on 
Contemporary Music, a drama production of "The Royal Hunt of the Sun," and 
a Terrapin Water Show. William Blackie, chairman of Caterpillar, made felici- 
tous remarks as principal speaker at the inaugural — it was customary in aca- 
demia for the head of the former institution or alma mater of the new president 
to make a ceremonial statement, so we adapted. The preparatory committee 


Chapter 1 Promenade 

had done its work well, and it was a good day for Wesleyan, although I had the 
feeling that the Student Senate, bedecked in academic regalia, might have been 
bewildered by it all. Immediately after the courthouse march, we held a series 
of meetings between law enforcement and University officials, including stu- 
dent leaders and Illinois State University personnel. These discussions proved 
to be timely and helpful, I think, in defusing tensions and improving under- 
standing, because initial contacts with city officials indicated that attitudes were 
hardening fast. I cannot say what we prevented, but the fact that we had no 
serious confrontations is a testimony to the usefulness of our efforts. The 
University's legal counsel, William Goebel, offered unremitting support 
throughout these events, far more than his fees ever covered. 

As mentioned earlier, attitudes became more intense the next year. The day 
after the Kent State killings on May 4 the flag was lowered in their honor and a 
coffin was placed at the foot of the flagpole, into which students placed flowers. 
The chapel service on Wednesday was transformed into a memorial service. A 
forum on Kent State and Southeast Asia was organized on Friday evening May 
8 by the Student Senate and a long list of students and faculty spoke. German 
hostilities had ended almost at that hour twenty-five years earlier, and I 
recalled how a German submarine surfaced four days later immediately in 
front of the convoy my Navy vessel was escorting toward Gibraltar. British 
destroyers pounced on it — one of the forty-nine U-boats still at sea when the 
war ended. Each generation has its own war and vital concerns. 

The following Monday, I flew to Dallas to participate in a committee of the 
Division of Higher Education of the United Methodist Church in an effort to 
organize support for its one hundred colleges and universities. Not long after 

Chapter 1 Promenade 

midnight on May 12, my wife called to tell me that Presser Hall was in flames. 
My family watched from our home across the street. If there was a darkest day 
in my Wesleyan years, this is the most likely candidate. We were struggling 
against odds to move forward and there was clear evidence of arson. More than 
two years passed before three juveniles from Bloomington-Normal confessed to 
the crime, and another two years passed before they were indicted and brought 
to trial. The confession was recanted by the leader and he was acquitted by a 
jury. Damage to the building was extensive; two separate fires had been start- 
ed, but most of the cost of repair was covered by insurance. 

Two other issues came up that spring. One faded as time passed — the 
Student Senate leadership wanted to invite William Kunstler, defense attorney 
for the Chicago Seven, to the campus. The defendants had been charged with 
incitement to riot during the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. 
The trial had recently concluded. There was much discussion, including 
trustees as well as other constituencies. Freedom of speech finally prevailed, 
and Kunstler sent his assistant, Leonard Weinglass, in his place. It was mostly a 
non-event; he spoke before 150 people in the Fieldhouse on May 22. The sec- 
ond event involved dissatisfaction with Governor Richard C. Ogilvie as 
Commencement speaker, again by a cadre of student leaders. As the former 
sheriff of Cook County, he was viewed as law and order with the National 
Guard at his disposal, and he had instigated the imposition of an unpopular 
state income tax. Students also complained that the graduating class was not 
consulted before inviting him, which was true. Various changes were proposed 
for their Commencement, some of which we incorporated. However, many 
could not be included because it was an unrehearsed event involving, for us, a 
large number of people. Finally, we decided to offer a ballot to seniors. They 
could have a largely traditional Commencement ceremony, or it could be can- 
celled and we would mail the diplomas to their homes. There were complaints, 
but slowly opinions mellowed. As the date approached, there were mumblings 
that marshmallows would be thrown at the Governor or some kind of demon- 
stration created. I communicated the situation to the Governor. At the ceremo- 
ny, a number of students wore peace symbols on their robes. As we prepared 
for the procession, I commented to the Governor that I thought not more than 
twenty-five wore the symbols. One of his security men overheard the remark 
and stated, 'There are thirty-two." 

Gradually, a sense of direction developed for the University and we began to 
move forward, but it seemed like a glacial pace at first. After weighing evalua- 
tions from several responsible advisers, I decided in April 1969 that we should 
seek new academic leadership. Accordingly, the search for a liberal arts dean 
was converted into one for dean of the university. John L. Clark of Sonoma 
State University in California accepted our offer in January 1970 and arrived in 
Bloomington that summer. He was educated at Wisconsin and Stanford and 
had a background in both English and drama. He was able, urbane, and pleas- 
ant — an excellent choice to move us ahead academically. The new faculty con- 
stitution adopted in February became effective upon his arrival following the 
first faculty elections in the spring. A further major leadership change also 


Chapter 1 Promenade 

occurred in May 1970 when Paul Allison, president of the Board of Trustees, 
requested a "sabbatical" after eight years of service. He was replaced by 
Clifford E. Schneider, a 1939 alumnus and Peoria attorney. A man of judicious 
instincts, and a neighbor of mine in Peoria (although I did not know him well 
then), he served for the next sixteen years. Since he was largely my choice, I felt 
fortunate and rewarded by his dedication and leadership. 

At the first trustee meeting in 1970, 1 announced a 'Tear of Re-evaluation" 
for the University. It was suggested by our development consultant, John A. 
Bolinger, and consisted of an effort to get as many of our constituents as possi- 
ble involved in formulating future plans — faculty, students, alumni, the United 
Methodist clergy, community leaders, and trustees. I had begun my first fall 
faculty conference address in 1968 with the quotation, " v Snorri/ according to 
one of the old Icelandic sagas, v was the wisest man in Iceland who had not the 
gift of foresight'.... If we do not make every effort to foresee the direction of 
things to come, we shall suffer the consequences of reliving the mistakes of his- 
tory." We established visiting committees for the Liberal Arts College, fine arts, 
and athletics in addition to the science advisory and nursing school committees, 
which already existed. They met with students, faculty, and alumni, toured 
facilities, and issued recommendations. Edward B. Rust, president of State 
Farm Insurance Companies, who became a trustee early in 1970, was chairman 
of the Liberal Arts College committee and summarized the recommendations a 
year later. Chief among these were the following: (1) construct the fine arts 
complex, (2) limit enrollment to the present level — 1650 full-time undergradu- 
ates, (3) eliminate older curricular programs as new ones are instituted, and (4) 
double the endowment and gift income. These became the goals for our Ten 
Million Dollar Program, which started informally in 1971. 

We applied for a College Science Improvement Program (COSIP) grant from 
the National Science Foundation in the spring of 1970 and received notification 
of approval in October for a three year $147,000 grant. Dr. Wendell W. Hess, 
chairman of the chemistry department, coordinated the application and became 
the project director. It provided a needed stimulus to the science departments. 

Next, we succeeded in obtaining funding for the fine arts project, which con- 
sisted of new art and music buildings and the complete renovation of the exist- 
ing music building, Presser Hall, which had been completed in 1930. I had 
called on Foster G. McGaw, chairman of American Hospital Supply Corp., 
twice during 1969 with the help of an alumnus, J. Richard Hull, Class of 1955, 
then a junior officer of the company. Two of our development staff, Lee W. 
Short, the director, and James F. Ridenour, were alert to the potential and assist- 
ed in drafting a proposal to McGaw. President Merrill J. Holmes had helped 
years before by awarding McGaw his first honorary degree in 1953. McGaw 
responded to the proposal letter by calling me in January 1971 when I was seek- 
ing funds from other prospects in Los Angeles. My secretary had me paged at 
breakfast, and we made connection with the promise of a $1.5 million estate 
note to assure funding for the $3 million project. We immediately ran into diffi- 
culty arranging the financing. Costs had gone up since the original architect's 

estimate. A federal loan was no longer possible because the program had been 

Chapter 1 Promenade 

cancelled. Attempts to borrow from private sources encountered negative 
responses. I called McGaw to let him know why it was taking longer than 
anticipated to get the financing arranged. He said, "Son, how much do you 
need?" I quickly responded that if his note assured us of an ultimate $2 million, 
I was certain we could put the financing together. That is how his gift rose by 
half a million dollars — a president's dream became reality. We finally arranged 
a private loan that spring, obtained bids within the estimates on July 29, 
and had a ground breaking September 2. After three years, we were clearly 
moving ahead. 


Chapter 2 Students 

Chapter 2 

"1 remember my youth, and the feeling that will 
never come back any more — the feeling that I could 
last forever, outlast the sea, the earth, and all 
men; the deceitful feeling that lures us on to joys, 
to perils, to love, to vain effort — to death; the 
triumphant conviction of strength, the heat of life 
in the handful of dust, the glow in the heart..." 

Joseph Conrad, "Youth" 


t is hard to overemphasize the fine qualities of Illinois 
Wesleyan students, although that bald statement appears both simplistic and 
self-serving. Actually, this largely self-selected group contained most of the 
population elements that make American society what it is. In the Midwest, 
and in Illinois in particular, the various waves of immigration were represented 
and intermixed, the strains of various European forbears alongside African 
Americans and small numbers of Asian Americans and Hispanics. 
Representations of the best of these are found in a small university, along with 
their aspirations and ambitions, not quite held in check by a civility not fully 
mastered. They were not always as "decent and docile" as an overused 
description by a faculty phrase-maker implied, but they were an inspiring and 
invigorating group. 

Colleges and universities exist primarily to serve students in the learning 
process. In small institutions such as Wesleyan, the teaching function is clearly 
paramount within the tripartite responsibilities of teaching and learning, schol- 
arly research or advancement of knowledge, and community service. 
Whatever we could do to enhance the learning environment, to contribute to 
the academic progress of students, to aid in their maturation, and to minimize 
the chances for failure or personal trauma, would, in my estimation, best serve 
the students who came to Illinois Wesleyan for their undergraduate studies. 
This belief and commitment guided much that I did at the University. 


Chapter 2 Students 

More than 11,000 students were in attendance during my eighteen years at 
Wesleyan. Sixty-four percent of those leaving obtained degrees — almost one 
for each of the 6,574 days I spent there, and we were able to improve on that 
percentage through the years. The overwhelming number were in the tradi- 
tional eighteen to twenty-two age group, and they were both Illinois and 
Wesleyan (Methodist), but they were becoming less so. 

One enduring characteristic of the student body was the number of students 
from rural and small town backgrounds in Central Illinois, in contrast to more 
than a third from the Chicago area. That one Presidential Scholar would be 
from a small town fifty miles from Bloomington is illustrative if not entirely 
typical. She graduated in a class of nineteen from a high school that offered no 
foreign language study, so she had taken Latin by correspondence. Her writing 
was good enough to qualify her for a freshman seminar, and she was sufficient- 
ly proficient in mathematics to begin with calculus. I am sure she occasionally 
struggled in competition with students from more extensive backgrounds, but 
when she completed her work at Wesleyan, she was admitted to an out-of-state 
medical school. 

The United Methodist influence was waning in my years at Illinois 
Wesleyan — from 40 percent of student religious backgrounds to 22 percent. 
The reasons were essentially two-fold. There was a sharp decline in Sunday 


One of the 6376 graduates, 1969-86 — Commencement 1980 


Chapter 2 Students 

School attendance within the Methodist churches, and youth groups became 
less active and numerous. This was also associated with a diminution in the 
hold of all denominations on maturing children as the youth rebellion played 
itself out. The second factor was the rising enrollment of Roman Catholic stu- 
dents following the conclusion of the Vatican II ecumenical council of 1962-65, 
which released many students to a wider horizon of college choices as upward 
mobility also occurred. Chicago was the largest Catholic diocese in the United 
States, and the Catholic proportion of students rose from less than a tenth to 
more than a quarter. Other mainline Protestant denominations collectively held 
their one-third share, although the Lutherans and Disciples gained while the 
Presbyterians and Episcopalians decreased. 

Enrollment was remarkably constant. We worked diligently toward the goal 
of 1650 full-time students, plus or minus two percent. From the time that target 
was established in 1970, enrollment averaged 1649. There were a couple of 
scares, one in the mid-1970s and another in the early 1980s as college-age popu- 
lation declined, but we were able to counteract them with positive measures. 
Fortunately, this was achieved while at the same time improving the quality of 
the student body, which was already high. 

My tenure at Wesleyan coincided with the college impact of the baby-boom 
generation. Born from 1946 to 1964, the first ones arrived at college in 1964. 
Most collegians were baby boomers by 1968 when I arrived, and the last ones 
were leaving by 1986. My own children fell into the middle of the group. The 
arrival of the baby boomers coincided with vast changes in social mores. They 
are a very diverse group, and generalizations about them are accordingly sus- 
pect. One thing is clear, the rapid rise in the college attendance rate was largely 
accomplished by the time the baby boomers arrived, which greatly enlarged 
their impact on higher education enrollment once they were there. The fact that 
their arrival in college roughly coincided with the civil rights movement, objec- 
tion to the Vietnam involvement, and other social changes, leads many to 
ascribe these changes to the baby boomers. This is not necessarily the case. 

The Wesleyan students with whom I was associated in varying ways and 
degrees were at times serious and whimsical, disappointed and angry, happy 
and pensive. They acted and played with determination, dissected their fetal 
pigs and measured their precipitates, or ran their chariot races and wrote their 
essays. They were pinned and engaged, affiliated or independent, graduated or 
dropped out. Mostly, they studied, persevered, and were successful. 


"The said university... shall be open to all denominations... and the 
profession of any particular religious faith shall not be required of those who 
become students. All persons, however, may be suspended or expelled from said 


Chapter 2 Students 

institution whose habits are idle or vicious, or whose moral character 
is bad." 

Charter, Illinois Wesleyan University 
Approved 1853, Illinois General Assembly 

My first responsibility regarding enrollment was to deal with what I per- 
ceived to be unwise enrollment aspirations of the institution. When the 
Memorial Student Center was expanded in 1965, the food service area had been 
designed to handle 2,200 students and some thought that number was an 
appropriate target during the 1970s. That implied compounding the 3 percent 
annual average growth of the institution through the decade that ended in 1968 
for another ten years. The trouble was that if we had food service capacity for a 
student body larger than 1650, we had little else required for continued expan- 
sion. College enrollment growth, which had been rapid in the 1950s and 1960s, 
was slowing. We would face early bottlenecks in science laboratories, faculty 
size, and even library facilities despite a new library built in 1968, in addition to 
immediate dormitory shortages. Any increase in enrollment without commen- 
surate gains in endowment would threaten to dilute endowment per student 
and faculty, and we already faced substantial capital fund needs for a fine arts 
center and other requirements. Consequently, I submitted the question for con- 
sideration to the Visiting Committee on the Liberal Arts College chaired by 
Edward B. Rust in 1970. They recommended holding enrollment at the existing 
level of approximately 1650, and that number was enthusiastically endorsed by 
the Board of Trustees and by others. That decision, made and favorably accept- 
ed, uncomplicated many aspects of Wesleyan's existence for the next sixteen years. 

As emphasized above, Illinois Wesleyan had always been heavily Illinois 
and Wesleyan in student origin, although the Methodist element shrank consid- 
erably during the 1970s and 1980s. Illinois continued to be the source of most 
students and the reasons were simple but not well understood by many close to 
the University. First, Bloomington is located in the center of the state with the 
nearest state line at Indiana, some one hundred miles away. Most American 
college students — almost nine out of ten — attend college within their home 
state. Indiana has two well-known, low-tuition state universities, Purdue and 
Indiana University, located in the western part of the state. In addition, it has a 
popular Methodist institution — DePauw — similarly situated. Second, as col- 
lege attendance became increasingly dependent on state student financial assis- 
tance, student bodies became more insular within the home state, because most 
state aid was limited to institutions within the state. Insofar as national atten- 
dance patterns can be said to exist, they are limited to fewer than a hundred 
prestige colleges and universities at the undergraduate level. As eastern states 
provided more public institutions to accommodate their own students, atten- 
dance at midwestern institutions declined, in some cases precipitously. Eastern 
attendance at Illinois Wesleyan peaked in 1967- 68 at less than 10 percent and 
then fell rapidly. 


Chapter 2 Students 

Admission and Financial Aid 

I started calling for a Midwest regional attendance strategy early in the 
1970s, but out-of-state enrollment fell to only a few percent in the mid-1970s 
before increasing, first in the four contiguous states. By the mid-1980s, we had 
broadened our admission efforts to include ten metropolitan areas in eight 
states within a five-hundred-mile radius. This evolution resulted from a con- 
certed discussion of alternatives to counteract the effects of a decline in the eight- 
een-year-old population through the 1980s and included the formation of an 
admission research group. 

We devised a three-fold strategy including, as I stated in the 1982-83 annual 
report, "(1) better admission procedures, (2) targeting a wider area in the 
Midwest, and (3) improved retention" of enrolled students. We reasoned that 
with achievable success in each of these directions, it would be possible to offset 
the anticipated decline in the college age population. That proved to be the case. 
From the faculty open houses in October and February each year to the orienta- 
tion sessions for entering students in the summer, we tried to perfect the 
process and fielded our first team to meet prospective students and parents. (I 
do not recall missing any of these meetings in my eighteen years). We removed 
the application fee and tried to simplify the bureaucratic financial aid process to 
reduce the number who did not consider Wesleyan because the "sticker price" 
(tuition) seemed high without actually finding out what the cost differential 
might be with financial aid in the picture. By the mid-1980s we were attracting 
almost twice as many students from the four contiguous Midwestern states 
than ever before. And gradually, attrition was reduced and retention improved 
as attention was focused on the needs of students once enrolled. 

The stabilization of enrollment around 1650 enabled us to concentrate on 
qualitative improvement of the student body. Test scores of entering freshmen 
rose marginally yet significantly from the period 1970-72 to the period 1984-86 
from an average 23.2 to 24.5 on the American College Test, which most of our 
entering students had taken. The class admitted in 1986 had the highest qualifi- 
cations of any prior class on record at Illinois Wesleyan. Our students were 
firmly in the middle of the top third of college students with these test scores, or 
at the 82-84 percentile ranking. Average rank in high school class was similar. 
Some of the improvement came from changes in admission standards. The 
more significant part of the improvement came, I suspect, from the delivery of 
subtle messages to prospective students through admission counseling and lit- 
erature emphasizing academic achievement at Wesleyan. Most students are 
self-selected in America, inasmuch as most are accepted by the college to which 
they apply. I was concerned that Illinois Wesleyan not become identified as an 
elitist institution, but there was ample room to improve our academic perform- 
ance without fear of excessive exclusion. The movement toward academic 
improvement automatically aided our retention effort by eliminating some of 
the more likely failures in the admission stage. Our policy emphasized that a 


Chapter 2 Students 

student not having a better than fifty-fifty probability of graduating should not 
be admitted. 

On my tenth anniversary as president in 1978, the trustees handed me a 
vehicle to better understand the quality of students through the creation of the 
Presidential Scholars. We decided not to emphasize financial inducement, but 
rather to honor one percent of entering freshmen with the designation. During 
my last nine years at Wesleyan, one of the academic deans and I interviewed 
roughly thirty students per year, and we selected forty-five students as 
Presidential Scholars. This was a highly promising group, but I soon learned 
that prior performance measures missed something in determining successful 
outcomes; ambition, perseverance, and social skills often more than compensate 
for raw academic ability. More than that, the interviews gave me another win- 
dow on the student potential coming to Wesleyan, and I was impressed. It 
emphasized to me again that there are many avenues to success and many dif- 
ferent types and combinations of ability. A significant portion of those attend- 
ing Wesleyan have the capability of succeeding in some fashion in the world after 
Wesleyan, of contributing in a unique way to the needs for leadership and service. 

Beginning in the early 1980s, we learned more about admission procedures 
and our prospective students through surveys of those entering, those accepted 
who did not attend, and those interested who did not apply. In particular, we 
learned who our competitive institutions were — about 125 each year among 
more than 2000 four-year institutions. We also learned why students chose 
Wesleyan or other institutions, and how their abilities corresponded with their 
decisions on the institution selected. 


Chapter 2 Students 

The University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign) was clearly our leading com- 
petitive institution, a surprise to some who thought Illinois State University 
occupied that position. Carleton was similarly surprised to learn it competed 
more with the University of Minnesota than with any other institution, so we 
borrowed admission research ideas from their work. About two-thirds of the 
time, our competition was large universities. Most of the rest of the time, we 
competed with other liberal arts colleges. We learned we did not lose an abnor- 
mally large share of the brighter students, and also that those we did lose were 
of the same ability range as those who attended. 

Although the Chicago area provided more than a third of Wesleyan' s stu- 
dents, each year almost three-quarters of Illinois' 102 counties were represented 
in the student body. The total student body was drawn from more than 600 
high schools; only 35 to 40 high schools sent eight or more students in any 
given year. This is an unusually large number of high school origins — but 
many produced only one student — which is related to the small town and rural 
origin of many students. Because of the ethnic, social, and economic diversity of 
Illinois, and the availability of financial aid from Wesleyan, our student body 
was a culturally diverse one, despite contentions to the contrary by those who 
did not bother to investigate. 

The design of the academic offerings of the University, particularly the Fine 
Arts College and the School of Nursing, made Wesleyan somewhat more attrac- 
tive in the aggregate to women than to men. This was intensified by the inter- 
est in career paths for men and the frequent emphasis on career-oriented majors 
at the large universities, our chief competitors. This became a concern in the 
early 1980s as male enrollment fell to the 41-43 percentile range. Two responses 
followed. One was to try to better identify career options stemming from a lib- 
eral arts background, which exist in abundance despite over-specialization 
which often occurs in the large institutions at the undergraduate level. The sec- 
ond was to broaden athletic opportunities by building a swimming pool and 
providing soccer as interest grew in that sport. The results followed my retire- 
ment: soccer became a varsity sport in 1986 and the swimming pool, because of 
construction problems, was not completed until early 1988. 

James R. Ruoti became director of admission in 1969 and much of our suc- 
cess in admission flowed from his energy and follow-up in leading this respon- 
sibility. His remarkable recall of many of the thousands of students handled by 
his office through the years added a dimension to the personal concern for indi- 
viduals we sought to cultivate among faculty and staff at Wesleyan. Ruoti's 
enthusiasm in speaking before prospective students was always fresh and origi- 
nal, despite his long tenure in his role. 

One of the principal findings of a 1983 study, College Choice in America by 
Charles Manski and David Wise was that with "All else equal, students tend to 
prefer privately controlled four-year colleges to other" alternatives. How far an 
individual private college could go in gaining this advantage depended on the 
availability of financial aid. In 1962, prior to my arrival at Illinois Wesleyan, a 
policy of admitting students regardless of financial circumstances (a need-blind 
policy) had been adopted, but commitment to the policy was required for its 

Chapter 2 Students 

continuance. While the operating budget almost quadrupled in my years at 
Wesleyan, financial-aid spending rose to almost seven times its initial level to 
keep our doors open to all students regardless of family economic status. This 
was possible only because endowment income rose even faster. The financial 
aid office was exceptionally well managed during all my years by Lynn 
Nichelson, and our efforts in providing aid won surprised comments from both 
North Central Association visiting teams. Audits by state and federal reviewers 
were usually followed by plaudits on the accuracy and compliance with guide- 
lines in program management. The determination and packaging of student 
aid is a complex process, as there were ten major sources to anticipate and coor- 
dinate. The details need not concern us here. Nevertheless, I soon learned its 
importance to institutional vitality and devised an ad hoc group of administra- 
tive staff to meet periodically and make decisions as necessary. 

At any time, roughly two-thirds of our students qualified for aid on a needs 
assessment basis. To that proportion, the University added another seventh or 
eighth of the student body by granting academic and talent awards. Therefore, 
around four-fifths of all students received aid in some form when these awards 
were fully implemented by the late 1970s and early 1980s. 

For the students receiving aid, the average total aid amounted to 60 percent 
of tuition, room and board charges. Grants were the largest form of assis- 
tance^ — 60 percent of the total — and were provided by the University, the State 
of Illinois through its Scholarship Commission, and the federal government in 
two principal programs, one for low-income students and one for students in 
middle income families. There was a federal work-study program and jobs 
were also provided by the University — in total roughly half of students worked 
on the campus in the food service, residence halls, Career Education Center, 
library, grounds crew, offices and laboratories. Less than a tenth of aid was 
available through campus jobs. 

Loans were available in several programs from the federal government, the 
largest being federally guaranteed loans administered through state govern- 
ments. The University also administered its own loan funds, often offsetting 
fluctuations in other programs. Loans were about 30 percent of aid. Two peri- 
ods of rapidly increasing institutional aid occurred. The first took place in the 
early 1970s when federal programs were being reassessed and the Walker 
administration froze the maximum level of state grants for four years. The sec- 
ond and more serious crisis occurred in the early 1980s when governmental 
grants to IWU students declined for three years. The University had to step in 
and make up the difference. A special infusion of endowment income amount- 
ing to $200,000 was proposed and approved by the trustees to see us through 
the crisis in 1982-83. 

Probably nothing was more important to Wesleyan' s enrollment strength 
and student diversity than the admission policy of accepting students regard- 
less of financial need. This policy has been followed for many years. Had the 
University not been in a strong financial position with modest operating sur- 
pluses, it could not have continued the practice of admitting all prospects 
regardless of financial circumstance. Contrary to general expectation, Illinois 

Chapter 2 Students 

Wesleyan had an economic and social profile more egalitarian than that of its 
large public rival, the University of Illinois. 

A special comment about African- American and other minorities is impor- 
tant. Blacks had only token representation in the student body prior to the mid- 
1960s when active admission efforts were initiated. African Americans were 55 
in number or 3.5 percent of the student body in 1968, and the share rose to more 
than 5 percent in the 1970s and early 1980s. After peaking at 95 students in 
1981-83, African American enrollment fell in the mid-1980s, back to the level of 
1968. We were primarily dependent on urban Chicago for a majority of our 
black students and as the Chicago Public Schools deteriorated, more problems 
were encountered in finding viable candidates, especially among black men. If 
the U.S. Secretary of Education's "worst in the nation" description of the 
Chicago schools was exaggerated, it identifies the problem we increasingly 
faced in admission. We carefully monitored black student progress and found 
that they were distributed in a random fashion throughout the curriculum and 
graduated at the same rate as all students. At the time of admission, they tend- 
ed not to perform as well on standardized tests (which were alleged to be cul- 
turally biased against them), and they required more financial aid. We found 
that we could readily accommodate both needs. Black students qualified for 
professional and graduate schools at the same rate as all students or a little bet- 
ter. We felt particularly successful in 1975 when three black women were 
accepted into medical schools. The enrollment picture for African Americans 
changed adversely in 1985-86 as urban school problems intensified, somewhat 
later at Wesleyan than elsewhere. 

Asian- American students began to increase in the 1980s as they did national- 
ly. Hispanics were under-represented, again as in all institutions, although 
they were found among our Presidential Scholars. Jewish students were also 
underrepresented at Wesleyan, perhaps reflecting the institution's less-urban 
constituency and also avoidance of church-related colleges by this group. 

Attrition and Retention 


Attrition was abnormally low in the late 1960s because of student deferments 
from the draft, which created an unhealthy academic environment by including 
some who did not wish to be in college. The draft and the deferment of stu- 
dents did not end in 1970, but the system was in transition to random selection 
and large numbers of college students no longer needed to stay in college to 
avoid military service. Consequently, many who had been in college solely to 
avoid the draft dropped out. Attrition at Illinois Wesleyan — those enrolled one 
year who did not graduate or return the next — jumped to almost 20 percent in 
1970. This figure got our attention. Probably because of the unusual Vietnam 
War circumstances of the late 1960s, attrition had not been studied in about a 
decade. While our graduation rate had improved in that interval, the situation 
required major examination. We undertook a comprehensive and continuing 
effort to reduce attrition and improve retention. The rate remained high in 1971 

Chapter 2 Students 

as the draft continued to recede, and thereafter our attrition rate fell sharply 
and improvement continued slowly but perceptively through the remainder of 
my years as president. 

The initial steps to address the problem of attrition and retention included 
designating the registrar, James R. Barbour, as gatekeeper. He held exit inter- 
views to understand so far as possible the reasons for leaving the University. 
Ultimately, he and the Dean of Students, Glenn Swichtenberg, spearheaded the 
retention effort with substantial input from the faculty. We tried over the years 
to make it a University-wide undertaking. Focus was placed on research into 
various groups of students most vulnerable to attrition. One fact that emerged 
was that finance or financial aid explanations for leaving were seldom the basic 
cause of attrition. They were reasons viewed as acceptable by students. 
Academic problems were fairly endemic to those who left along with a failure 
to establish ties to other people and activities. Once we better understood the 
reasons for students' leaving, the attention began to shift to appropriate tech- 
niques of intervention, which were more elusive. 

A pre-major advisory committee of faculty members was established which 
devised an Advisory Handbook in 1975 followed by periodic revisions. Pre- 
major advisory assignment was made insofar as possible from among a stu- 
dent's first instructors as well as within the discipline they were likely to study. 
One group we found success in helping that also reduced attrition was the 
undecided majors, students casting about for a field of study compatible with 
their interests and abilities. Students disappointed in one major, looking for 
another, were particularly vulnerable to attrition. The Career Education Center 
was especially helpful in working with these students, in designing programs 
to help them feel comfortable with their undecided or exploratory status and to 
get on with the job of defining themselves. Greater familiarity with career possi- 
bilities and options obviously can help students feel more confident in the con- 
nections between college and work. 

Anne Meierhofer initiated the Career Planning Office when she stepped out 
of the Dean of Students role in 1969. She spent her last five years before retire- 
ment in this function, which had existed as a placement office sometime before. 
In 1977, we were able to broaden it into a Career Education Center under initial 
funding from the Kellogg Foundation. Kate Romani evolved the concept from 
her business background with the Chase Manhattan Bank. Perhaps the most 
helpful innovation was the use of student para-professionals to expand the out- 
reach of the Center into various disciplines and campus housing units. They 
did not threaten other students as staff or faculty did and could more readily 
contact them and involve them in needed activities. Other innovations imple- 
mented by the Center included an effort to connect student employment with 
career aspirations where it was possible. Beginning in 1979, Alumni Career Day 
was held in conjunction with Homecoming, which brought students in contact 
with alumni five to ten years after graduation. 

Another action that helped reduce attrition was the beginning of the 
Academic Skills Center in 1983. It combined remedial and developmental work 
in reading, writing, mathematics and oral communication under faculty guid- 


Chapter 2 Students 

ance with staff and student assistants. Initially, it was open twenty-four hours a 
week and served as a collecting and reference point for those requiring or wish- 
ing assistance. Other smaller actions may have contributed, such as encourag- 
ing faculty of freshmen classes to return some graded feedback to students 
within the first two to three weeks in the fall so that problems could be 
addressed before they became critical. 

I became concerned about the lack of familiarity many of our faculty 
appeared to have about the nature of the high schools from which we drew stu- 
dents. Some admitted to not having been in a high school in more than twenty- 
five years. To remedy this situation, we organized visits to Chicago suburban 
high schools for about a third of our faculty in 1976. Our interest could not 
have gone unnoticed by the schools involved. Later in the 1980s, we devised 
visits to high school classrooms primarily by science, mathematics and comput- 
er science, English, and foreign language faculty to hopefully provide for a two- 
way exchange. The high schools were carefully chosen to be important feeder 
schools for Wesleyan and at the same time to represent six types of schools 
from which we drew students: integrated small city, Chicago suburban, 
Chicago inner-city, downstate suburban, parochial, and small township high 
schools. The program operated my last two years at Wesleyan. We had some 
successes, but there were problems where adequate preparation had not been 
carried out with the high school faculty involved. We needed more staff input, 
something that might have been available had we been successful in finding 
foundation support. I thought the concept had potential for improving the 
articulation between high school and college. 

The retention effort slowly bore fruit as we were able to learn steps to over- 
come the many ways students can stumble on their way through college. I 
thought we ought to strive to improve the student success rate, aiming, as I told 
the faculty in 1983, for a 70 percent graduation rate, possibly even the 80 per- 
cent rate we achieved with our academic and talent award winners. Late in the 
1970s, Jim Barbour was expressing the view that it would be very difficult to 
reduce attrition from year to year below 10 percent. He was pleased to tell me 
the year I retired that it had been reduced to 8 percent. 



"There's no heavier burden than a great potentiall" 
Charles Schulz, Peanuts 

The life of an active community of 1650 students, that changed yearly and 
included more than 11,000 students over an eighteen-year period, is obviously 
difficult to summarize. This limited sketch leaves out much that is important, 
but it will include the living arrangements for a community that was approxi- 
mately 90 percent residential; student leadership, communications and activi- 
ties, largely reflected in the Student Senate and the Argus; athletics; the African- 

Chapter 2 Students 

American experience, our most sig- 
nificant minority; and spiritual life. 
Other aspects of student activities, 
such as music or drama are present- 
ed in the chapter on Academic 
Programs and in the final chapter. 
The combination of irony and whim- 
sey in student life, never far from the 
surface, is ever present if not pre- 
sented here. For example, a musical 
combo made up of Wesleyan stu- 
dents turned up in 1976 calling itself 
"State Funk and Casualty/' 

"Wesleyland" was the most fre- 
quently applied sobriquet for Illinois 
Wesleyan, not used in everyday 
speech, but it was found in occasion- 
al student writings. I do not know 
its origin, but it was intended to con- 
vey a quaint downstate college, a 
derivation from Wonderland and 
Disneyland. It's all right. In some 
ways it probably fit. 

John Hatfield '86 pointing eminent scien- 
tists behind Sherff Holl 

Living Arrangements and Policies 

Wesleyan had the good fortune to evolve living arrangements of consider- 
able variety, including the seven residence halls, a collection of houses, and the 
fraternity and sorority houses. The residence halls had been built from 1948 to 
1970 and exhibited differences in arrangement and architecture. Each was 
staffed by a director and student resident assistants. More than a few hall direc- 
tors were surprised to learn that I wished to interview all candidates for the 
position; my interest stemmed from the fact that students spent more time in 
residence halls than in classes, and the quality of life there was important in the 
total Wesleyan experience. Resident assistants had to learn, sometimes with 
difficulty, that in their capacity they represented the University. In most years 
about six houses were in use, and most were built between 1900 to 1920. These 
houses were especially attractive to students because of their late- Victorian 
design, small group congeniality, and possible reminiscence of their grandpar- 
ents' homes. Several living-learning arrangements and programming were 
experimented with in the course of time, although no continuing patterns evolved. 

We went through lengthy discussions on closing hours, guest visitation, and 
lounge policies in the late 1960s and early 1970s. If the policies in the sixties 
were too stringent, which they were, the tendency was to go too far for safety 
and sanity in the other direction. I hope we established a reasonable compromise. 


Chapter 2 Students 

By and large, the residential arrangements and food service must have been 
attractive because we reached a point in my later years when 92 percent of stu- 
dents lived on the campus. To qualify for living off campus, a student had to be 
from McLean County or over 21 years of age. Fewer than one in four meeting 
these conditions actually lived off campus. 

About a third of the students opted to affiliate with the fraternities or sorori- 
ties that exist at Wesley an. A local fraternity organized in the early 1970s 
became the basis of the Sigma Pi chapter in 1975, and this was the only expan- 
sion of the Greek system during the eighteen years other than in membership 
and improvements in several houses. Faculty exasperation over interference 
with academic priorities, especially as it pertained to rush and pledge activities 
at the beginning of the year, led to the formation of a Rush-Pledge Study 
Committee in 1978-79. This was followed by another faculty-student commit- 
tee to monitor improvements and by the deferral of rush until a week after 
classes had begun. Improvements resulted. In general, sororities were more 
responsibly operated than fraternities. Periodically each of the fraternities had 
to be called to task for excessive noise, alcohol use and misuse, and poor house- 
keeping. The Acacia house deteriorated to the point that they were offered 
housing in Adams Hall in 1983, and after repeated policy violations, the chapter 
was suspended by the University in January 1985. 

While around-the-clock security seemed necessary and desirable at 
Wesleyan, I soon perceived the need to change the image and function from 
policemen to student safety and support personnel. Accordingly, when a 
change in directors occurred in 1970, we adopted green blazers and prohibited 
weapons, substituting a two-way radio to Bloomington police as a backup. I 
steadfastly retained this position and refused repeated requests for a security 
vehicle on a campus seldom requiring more than a quarter-mile run. 
Nevertheless, what could happen, eventually seemed to happen. A campus is 
an attractive place for students from elsewhere and assorted hangers-on. 

Eight student deaths occurred among those enrolled from 1968 to 1986. Five 
of these were in automobile accidents on highways near Bloomington, one was 
in a motorcycle accident on the edge of the campus, and two were suicides, 
both off-campus in Bloomington-Normal. There were two poignant 
Commencements. In one case, a beloved student killed in an auto accident had 
an identical twin who attended a nearby college and who marched through 
Commencement to receive his brother's diploma. In the other, faculty and staff 
had invested much effort in getting a student to graduation after five years. 
Four days before Commencement, he was killed returning to the campus on his 
motorcycle from a party. 

Sorority houses were illegally entered on several occasions, and in two 
instances women were raped in 1974 and 1977. A particularly bizarre event 
took place at the second of the two houses, located close to the campus about 
one and a half years later. A man armed with a gun and a knife entered a sleep- 
ing dormitory, molested five women and raped a sixth. A seventh woman 
played possum and was not disturbed. No arrest was ever made, and the cam- 
pus was traumatized for a time. Fortunately, the woman raped was never iden- 

Chapter 2 Students 

tified, rare for a small campus, and her parents were supportive and not vindic- 
tive even to her attacker, maximizing her opportunity for recovery. 

Following the crescendo of student unrest nationally and the Presser Hall 
fire in the spring of 1970, we contemplated appropriate actions should the 
unrest escalate and visit our campus. I drafted a three and one-half page mem- 
orandum in the summer of 1970 setting out possibilities, alternatives, and pro- 
cedures to be followed. This was discussed with the Cabinet officers, the 
Executive Committee of the Board, and the Faculty Advisory Committee. I 
emphasized that, "the possibility of disruption is sufficiently pervasive, even 
for small liberal arts colleges, that it is advisable for us to think through the 
alternate reactions to protest that we might follow here." I continued on to sug- 
gest possibilities: "if the unrest takes no more serious form than blocking of 
facilities, if the operation of the University is not immediately threatened, and if 
the activities are clearly University students, our response should be mild and 
not resort immediately to physical methods of removal.... Whether or not we 
would have the patience to wait out the occupation of facilities as was done at 
Brandeis for eleven days or at the University of Chicago for sixteen days is an 
open question/' 

Some of our students had been helpful earlier. My memo continued, "There 
was an attempt to radicalize the situation at Wesleyan in May by a small group 
of Illinois State University students and faculty, but their leadership was reject- 
ed by Wesleyan students." The story as it was related to me was that Barry 
Swanson (Class of 1970) told them that Wesleyan students could handle their 
own situation without help from ISU. At any rate, none of the extensive prepa- 
ration was ever needed, despite several tense moments, as mentioned in the 
first chapter. 

After the ratification of the Twenty-Sixth Amendment to the U.S. 

Constitution in 1971, giving 18-year-olds the right to vote, many legislatures 

gave other privileges and responsibilities to young people. They went too far 

too fast. Illinois lowered the age for beer and wine consumption from 21 to 19 

in 1973. The "no alcohol" rule had long been a contentious issue on the campus 

before the action, and it threatened to become even more so when alcohol was 

made legal for almost all but freshmen. Action was taken by the Executive 

Committee of the Board in October 1973 permitting students of legal age to 

drink in the privacy of their rooms. It was presented to the full Board the same 

month and approved. The United Methodist Bishop of the Illinois area 

opposed the action and later, after receiving complaints from church people, 

sought to have the Board rescind its action. The Board held firm. Gradually, 

under the leadership of Glenn Swichtenberg, we gained more control over a 

difficult situation. In 1979, the State Legislature reversed its action effective 

January 1, 1980, and we returned to a no-alcohol policy on the campus. Again, 

Dean Swichtenberg did yeoman service in preparing students for the change 

and even won a "Fair Enforcement" editorial in the Argus in April. There had 

been much anticipation that the treatment of fraternities and independents 

would not be even-handed because of greater supervision in the residence 

halls, but the experience proved otherwise. 


Chapter 2 Students 

Alcohol, 18 to 22 year-olds, groups and parties, and automobiles were not a 
healthy mix in my experience at Wesleyan. I was not naive enough to think 
that alcohol was not consumed on the campus. There were enough beer cans 
dropped here and there to suggest otherwise (aside from party reports), but I 
think the right signals were sent through the University's position. We also 
tried to send other health messages to students, such as removing the cigarette 
machines from the Student Center and establishing many non-smoking areas. 

Glenn Swichtenberg appealed to me as a Dean of Students because of his 
innate concern for students and his foursquare sensibility in a period that was 
anything but settled morally. From the time he came in 1975, 1 felt that I could 
sleep at night knowing that he was there trying to reconcile the myriad prob- 
lems 1650 students inevitably encountered. Any campus is never serene, but it 
was more so because of him. 

Student Leadership, Activities, and Communication 

In 1958, his first year, President Lloyd Bertholf announced he was turning 
over the student activity fee to the Student Senate to administer and pay for all 
student sponsored events and programs, from the newspaper and yearbook to 
dance bands and concerts. It was a wise move that didn't leave any room for 
subsequent modification. Students argued about Senate spending incessantly, 
and they occasionally squandered or misapplied funds but on the whole were 
very responsible. A sample of some of the events sponsored, along with other 
programming selections and events at the University are shown in Table 2.1. 

After experimenting for a couple of years with the All University Council 
dinner meetings, we began in 1970 to have informal monthly luncheons of 
Cabinet and Student Senate officers, commission heads, the Argus editor, the 
Black Student Union president, and occasionally others. The format was to 
share information around the table, and it worked well during my years at 
Wesleyan. At my second Board meeting, we established the practice of inviting 
student visitors, and soon began involving students in most faculty or 
University committees. Formal student course and faculty evaluations were 
also begun. Each February, beginning in 1977, we arranged a student host for 
each trustee and asked the trustee to introduce the student host following din- 
ner. It produced fascinating interaction. These contacts, along with other meet- 
ings, enabled me to know a significant number of students in a more than casu- 
al way. 

There were twenty presidents of the Student Senate during my eighteen 
years. One served for two years, and there were two in each of two years. They 
were an unusual group by any measure. Two were straight A students, five 
became attorneys, one of whom is now a judge, two are doctors, two are minis- 
ters, and three work for insurance companies. Of the twenty, five were women. 
Two incidents capture the extremes of reaction to their leadership. I was 
touched by a gift of $10,000 to the University from surplus funds of the Senate 


Chapter 2 Students 

TABLE 2.1 



The Argus, repetitio ad nauseam 

Frank Borman, astronaut, 1969 


Andrew Young, SCLC, 1969 

NAIA tournament quarter finals, 1977 

Hubert H. Humphrey, 

Ralph D. Abemathy, SCLC, 1977, 1985 

former U.S. Vice President, 1969 

Frank Capra, 

Michael Novak, Catholic scholar, 1970 

motion picture director, 1978 

Michael Harrington, 

Larry McMurtry, novelist, 1978 

socialist, anti-communist, 1970 

Edward Villella, ballet dancer, 1979 

James Farmer, 

Volleyball, state quarter finals, 1980 

National Director, CORE, 1971 

Python loose in Sherff Hall, 1981 

Helen Hayes, actress, 1971 

James Lawson, SCLC, 1982 

Grace Hartigan, artist, 1972 

Edward Muskie, 

Gwendolyn Brooks, Illinois 

former Secretary of State, 1982 

poet laureate, 1972, 1973, 1979 

Yolanda King, 

Frankie M. Freeman, 

daughter of Martin Luther King, 1983 

U.S. Civil Rights Commission, 1973 

Jaroslav Pelikan, 

Kathleen Battle, soprano, 1974, 1975 

Christian scholar and historian 1984 

Edward B. Rust, 


President, State Farm Insurance, 1974 

ACTF, Washington, DC, 1984 

Elaine de Kooning, artist, 1975 

James Buswell, violinist, 1985 

Uta Hagen, actress, 1975 


Martin E. Marty, 

NCAA Division III, quarter finals, 1986 

Lutheran and Protestant scholar, 1976 

Robert Michel, 

Howard Hanson, 

Republican leader, U.S. House of 

composer and conductor, 1976 

Representattives, 1986 

to establish a Student Senate Scholarship in 1981, when governmental grants 
were being cut, especially since the Senate president, Lynn Folse '82, had to 
contend with considerable verbal abuse to gain approval by a six vote margin. 
The other extreme involved a president who deliberately broke a confidence 
after he was involved in negotiations with black students. After dressing him 
down in private, he responded that "no one has talked to me like this since I 
was nine years old." Perhaps someone should have. 

The Argus was an effective news source for the University community, 
although occasionally it stumbled. The editors were frequently critical of the 
Student Senate leadership, and since the Senate held the purse strings, it retali- 
ated if goaded long enough. In the fall of 1973, the editor was accused of some 
irregularity and an investigation followed, which exonerated him. He then 
resigned and took most of his staff with him. This cut off the planned succes- 
sion of managing editor to editor and corresponding moves, and nearly 
wrecked the paper for two years. From 1973 to 1975, there were seven editors 
of the Argus. 

We had twenty-four editors in eighteen years — one served two years, one 
served one and a half years, and another served jointly for a year and for a year 
by himself. Ten were women. Only half reveal occupation in the Alumni 


Chapter 2 Students 

Directory, but of these, eight are in journalism, public relations, or publications 
work. One is a high school English teacher and another is an attorney. 
Although the writers were harsh with administrators on occasion, they were 
unmerciful with student leaders. Overall, I think they threw me as many unex- 
pected bouquets as barbs, so I have no complaints. The angels behind the enter- 
prise were Professor Harvey F. Beutner, who served as adviser for twenty four 
years, and Bernard H. Gummerman, Class of 1931, whose firm has printed the 
paper for more than forty years. 

The radio station, WESN, finally got on the air in 1972. It had some good 
years, but mostly it struggled to meet FCC requirements, to find meaningful 
programming, and to match student expectations. 



Anyone familiar with Illinois Wesleyan knows that it has a long history of 
successful athletic competition, and that was in evidence during my years there. 
Much credit goes to the coaches and athletic directors: Jack Horenberger, 
Dennis Bridges, Don Larson, Bob Keck, and Barb Cothren. They not only field- 
ed excellent teams, they helped keep the focus where it belonged, on student 
academic priorities. The students wanted intensely to compete in athletics, and 
they joined Wesleyan because they could play and also obtain a fine education, 
keeping their financial aid if they chose not to play. This was not an option at 
many major universities. The excellence of our athletes is confirmed by the 
number elected as first-team Academic All- Americans by the College Sports 
Information Directors of America. From 1971 to 1986, five were named in 
men's basketball, four in football, four in baseball, one at large, one in women's 
basketball, and one in softball. These sixteen were elected twenty-four times, 
putting Illinois Wesleyan in a league with Indiana University and Southern 
California, in terms of frequency of election. Edgar Alsene helped by carefully 
preparing information on candidates for consideration, but he had to have good 
candidates to win. Of the sixteen first team selections, five became doctors, four 
are Certified Public Accountants, two are teachers, one is an attorney, one, a 
professor of economics, and one is a manager at a regional telephone company. 
Memorably, Jack Sikma enjoyed a fourteen-year career in professional basketball. 

Sikma was still growing when he arrived at Wesleyan from St. Anne, Illinois, 
and had not thought of playing professional basketball. Coach Bridges saw the 
potential, but he, too, had no anticipation of what the future held. After estab- 
lishing all-time records at Wesleyan, the small-college star unexpectedly was 
the eighth choice in the first round NBA draft in 1977. The choice was a good 
one for the scholar-athlete — in his second season with the Seattle Supersonics, 
he came home wearing an NBA championship ring. In fourteen seasons, 
including the six with the Milwaukee Bucks, he was involved in eleven play- 
offs, and his 1107 games played ranked him ninth in NBA records. He was also 
consistently high in scoring, rebounding, free-throws, and team assists. More 
importantly, his accounting preparation at Wesleyan will ease his transition 

Chapter 2 Students 

from professional basketball stardom to the mundane world of business. 

Individual achievements of athletes at Wesleyan were far too extensive to 
recount. There were eight full or shared men's basketball championships in the 
College Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin, six trips to the National 
Association of Intercollegiate Athletics tournament in Kansas City, and one 
Midwest Regional championship after joining Division III of the National 
Collegiate Athletic Association. CCIW championships were won or shared in 
baseball four times, in football three times, and in golf, twice. Some will 
remember better the basketball victories over Arizona in 1983, Loyola in 1970, a 
four point loss to Bradley in the first of six games, the triple overtime victory 
over Wheaton in 1981, and Tom Gramkow's famous last shot in the last second 
of the last game with Illinois State. I nudged the coaches to schedule non-con- 
ference games in large Midwestern cities or with Associated Colleges of the 
Midwest or Great Lakes College Association teams for greater visibility where 
it counted, and they obliged. 

Jack Horenberger '36 epitomized what was good and different about 
Wesleyan athletics for 39 years. More than any other individual, he set the tone 
for Wesleyan' s student athletes. When athletic scholarships were eliminated in 
a shift to need-based awards in the 1960s, Jack went along but thought it would 
not work. When it did, he was among the first to acknowledge that fact and to 
become a vocal supporter for aid based on need. His record in coaching basket- 
ball and his sport of choice, baseball, speak for themselves — it was the way he 
did it that attracted attention and respect, along with his ever-present congen- 
iality. He served as athletic director for almost twenty-five years and turned 
over the reins in 1981 to his protege, Dennis Bridges '61. 


Chapter 2 Students 

Bridges has not only carried on but has established a tradition of his own by 
his winning teams and by the cultivation of scholar-athletes. He commands 
great attention nationally and especially within the CCIW, where he has won 
almost three-quarters of his basketball games since becoming head coach in 1965. 

Women's teams emerged in the 1970s — basketball in 1971, volleyball in 1974, 
and softball in 1977. Soon we had five sports represented, including tennis and 
track and field. Membership of the nine colleges in the CCIW remained 
unchanged throughout my term, but the Conference made no move to offer 
competition in women's athletics. The four Chicago colleges and the two in 
Wisconsin joined others in forming a Chicago Metro Conference, which left the 
three downstate colleges dangling to build a compatible schedule each year. 
No invitation had been extended to the three. When I became chairman of the 
CCIW in 1984, 1 suggested that the Conference needed either to "fish or cut 
bait" in women's athletics. The other six colleges chose to do nothing. The 
three downstate colleges then set about establishing a new conference for both 
men's and women's competition, including a prominent Indiana institution and 
possibly others. After many vaporous discussions, for which college adminis- 
trators are well known, the CCIW members suddenly decided to commence 
women's competition in the fall of 1986. This reconsideration was my legacy to 
women's athletics. 

In the meantime, the women had not done badly on their own. The basket- 
ball team had three very good seasons in 1973-74, 1976-77, and 1981-82, before 
going into a slide followed by a difficult recovery. In volleyball, the team had 
winning seasons and competed in the state college tournament four years in a 
row beginning in 1978. In the third year it reached the quarter finals, and in 
1981 the team placed second. The tennis team was also demonstrating strength, 
and Wesley an sent its first woman into national track competition in 1981. 

Athletic contests, especially football and basketball, are the great unifying 
experiences of the college community. Aside from living and studying together 
on the same campus, reading the Argus, and attending several events, there are 
not that many things that all students do together. At Wesleyan, the strong ath- 
letic program provides a shared focus for most students. The talented band 
(and until 1985, the marching band), cheerleaders, student planned Dads' Day 
and Homecoming, and pom pons — all, added to the spirit of celebration for 
these sports occasions. "New age" cheerleaders came on the scene in 1979-80, 
including both men and women with gymnastic and pyramid-building tech- 
niques. Nell and I always watched in awe mingled with fear that one would 
fall, but it never happened. The team approach engendered by the coaching 
staff contributed a cohesiveness to the overall quality of these experiences. 

The African-American Experience 

One of my urgent concerns at Wesleyan was the quality of the experience of 
the small group of black students (from 55 to 95 in number). We were a 


Chapter 2 Students 

" white" college by cultural background. A significant portion of our students 
had never lived in communities with blacks, and a majority of our black stu- 
dents came from almost completely black schools and areas of Chicago. We 
had no black faculty or administrative staff initially, so we sought to present 
African- American role models through invited speakers and performers. They 
were invited by a variety of different groups, including the Black Student 
Union itself. A number were clearly of national stature, such as Andrew 
Young, SCLC (1969), Julian Bond, Georgia legislator (1970, 1980), James Farmer, 
CORE (1971), Kathleen Battle, soprano (1974, 1975), Ralph Abernathy, SCLC 
(1977, 1985), Barbara Nichols, president of the American Nurses Association 
(1981), James Lawson, SCLC (1982), and Yolanda King, daughter of Martin 
Luther King (1983). Because our black students came from segregated back- 
grounds and few joined fraternities or sororities, I granted their request for a 
house for their activities and meetings, and the Afro- American Cultural Center 
became a part of the campus scene in the spring of 1970. 

Faculty recruiting of blacks was difficult because only one to two percent of 
PhD. holders in liberal arts fields were black. Nevertheless, we had at least one 
black faculty member from 1970 on, and in most years there were two. Two 
were elected to leadership positions by the faculty, Frank Starkey and Pamela 
Muirhead, and one served as a department head, Frank Starkey. We elected 
our first black trustee in 1983, an alumnus, David Wilkins '74. The Student 
Senate provided funding for a Black Fine Arts Festival beginning in 1970-71, 
and a gospel choir, style show, and other activities appeared from time to time. 
Four social or service fraternities and sororities with chiefly black membership 
appeared for a number of years, and two were still functioning when I retired. 

Andrew Young with Paul Bushnell (history) 1969 


Chapter 2 Students 

In 1969, the Drama School produced eight performances of "Raisin in the 
Sun." Frankie Faison '71 and Judy Betts '72 played the lead roles, and black stu- 
dents from throughout the campus were cast. "For Colored Women Who Have 
Considered Suicide/ When the Rainbow Is Enuf" was performed in the labora- 
tory theater in 1983 with seven women in the cast. Occasionally there was 
racial confusion. When "The Tempest" was produced, Frankie Faison played 
Caliban. Helen Hayes came to work with students and to make a critique of the 
production. A visiting black South African novelist, Ezekiel Mphalele, here for 
the Fine Arts Festival, was in attendance in native dress. One of our local octo- 
genarians was there and encountered Mphalele on the way out. He compli- 
mented him on his role as Caliban. Mphalele graciously accepted the comment; 
Faison missed the praise entirely. Since graduation, Faison has enjoyed an 
extensive career in movies and television as well as on Broadway. 

There were frictions, too. When Lillian Hellman's "The Little Foxes" was 
produced, some black students resented the stereotypical roles played by blacks 
and protested that the play was selected. While there were usually several 
black football players, there were repeated complaints that blacks did not have 
sufficient opportunity to play basketball. A black women's intramural volley- 
ball team held a sit-in when they thought they had been treated unfairly. In the 
fall of 1982, a collection of grievances were aired in a forum on racism. Mostly, 
all parties persevered in an effort to work together. 

Religious Activities 

Students from the late sixties to the mid-eighties were not a pious lot, no 
matter what the followers of John Wesley might have wished them to be. They 
were not irreligious either. We continued to have a chaplain, William L. White, 
who, along with the student committee, planned a superb series of chapel ser- 
vices. Less than 10 percent of the student body attended each Wednesday 
morning, but most students attended at one time or another. The largest atten- 
dance during my years occurred unexpectedly when Bishop Richard Raines 
came as a visiting fall religious lecturer — there was one each fall and spring — 
during the Vietnam Moratorium on October 15, 1969. Presser Hall was full, 
and it even overwhelmed the then-aging Bishop Raines. We ordinarily had one 
or two programs or occasions each year which attracted two or three hundred 
students, but usually we struggled along with the faithful few. 

Marvelous opportunities existed for students to participate in the perfor- 
mance of religious music through the Collegiate and Chapel Choirs and other 
choral organizations. Those involved seemed to realize that they had been 
through a transforming experience as a result. I watched with interest when a 
visiting speaker unexpectedly recognized the performing caliber of one of our 
student groups. We graduated many fine church musicians, although the num- 
ber declined as the interest and willingness to support good church music fell 
off in the larger society. 

Chapter 2 Students 

Student interest in religious topics ran from the mainstream to either extreme 
with evangelical groups, such as BASIC (Brothers and Sisters in Christ) or Inter- 
Varsity Christian Fellowship, displaying particular vigor as they did elsewhere. 
The really transforming development, however, was the rise in Roman Catholic 
enrollment. It surpassed United Methodist numbers in the fall of 1981. 
Catholic enrollment had been less than fifty students at the time of the Second 
Vatican Council in the early 1960s. It rose rapidly as second and third genera- 
tion Irish, Italian, and Polish families moved into the mainstream of American 
life. A Catholic Collegiate Organization was formed with our encouragement, 
and ceremonial masses were held on the campus in the 1980s. Sister Helen 
Carey, a Benedictine nun, was assigned to work with Catholic students in 1985, 
and the University employed her to teach in the religion department. The fol- 
lowing year she filled in for Chaplain White while he was on sabbatical leave. 
The change occurred easily and with dignity, demonstrating the ability of an 
institution to adapt as its constituents changed over time. 

As the sixties receded into the seventies and eighties, sexual promiscuity 
increased as well as the use of drugs. Political and business scandals have 
marked our society, and research scams have been revealed in the scientific 
community. How was the apparent decline in family values and responsibility 
reflected at Wesleyan? The cynicism of the modern world was present here, as 
was a reluctance of youth to judge their peers. By that same token I am reluc- 
tant to evaluate the students negatively or severely as one generation frequently 
views another. They continually surprised me by wanting to prepare their own 
baccalaureate services, by instituting Festa Wesleyana dinners for faculty, staff, 
and their families, and by their concern for world hunger. With the opening of 
Evelyn Chapel, faculty organist David Gehrenbeck introduced a Christmas 
carol service for Wesleyan and community people following the "Nine Lessons 
and Carols" liturgy of Kings' College Chapel at Cambridge. The following 
spring of 1985, a graduating drama major, Chris Kawolsky, pestered and 
promised until we let him mount a production of "Godspell" in Evelyn Chapel. 
He directed an enthusiastic cast of ten students plus a band and production 
crew from across the University in four electrifying performances. Moral and 
spiritual motivations and aspirations were innate in our students. We had only 
to find ways to help them express themselves. 

On frequent occasions, I reminded students of the crucial decisions they are 
called on to make during the college years or soon after: selection of a career 
path, or at least the first step, choice of a mate, and fashioning a philosophy of 
life and one's personal code of conduct. Yeats said it better in his 1938 lines 
from "Under Ben Bulben" which I often used: 

"Even the wisest man grows tense 
With some sort of violence 
Before he can accomplish fate, 
Know his work or choose his mate." 


Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

Chapter 3 
Faculty and Staff 

"A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell 
where his influence stops." 

Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams 

eople — faculty and staff — made the difference in thrust- 
ing Illinois Wesleyan forward in the world of higher education — not resources, 
not the campus, not location, as important as these may be. Colleges and uni- 
versities offer services to young people, services which are difficult to evaluate 
in accomplishing the transmission of culture to each succeeding generation. The 
system evolved to deliver these services is highly competitive, involving both 
publicly and independently controlled institutions, major universities, four- 
year colleges, community colleges, and specialized institutions. Illinois 
Wesleyan competes each year with well over a hundred institutions for its 
entering class. The skill with which its educational services are delivered to and 
interpreted by the community of interested people determines the success of its 
mission. The quality of faculty and staff is paramount to its ability to accom- 
plish this task. 

Educational services at Wesleyan during my term were provided by 125 fac- 
ulty and 160 staff, plus part-time people (which reduced to less than ten full- 
time equivalents), food service workers, and the many students who worked in 
practically all parts of the University, primarily 10 to 20 hours per week. 
Rosters of those serving in the faculty and staff supervisory positions are shown 
by department in the appendices. I regret that it is possible to name only a few 
of them in this narrative, but there were almost 900 full-time people alone dur- 
ing my eighteen years. This chapter will focus on overall University leadership, 
teaching and scholarship, faculty governance, and a sampling of popular and 
unpopular decisions. Faculty activities are principally chronicled in this chap- 
ter and the next, while those of staff members are described in the chapters 
dealing with their areas of responsibility. 

The continuity and dedication of Wesleyan' s faculty and staff contributed 


Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

decisively to the quality of its reputation as an educational institution. Twenty- 
nine percent of the faculty served the entire eighteen years with me along with 
a third of the staff leaders. While all five Cabinet members, or administrative 
staff, and all but one of ten faculty directors turned over at least once during my 
tenure, all were committed to offering the best programs possible commensu- 
rate with our abilities and resources. I was continually amazed and gratified to 
learn that faculty and staff people would graciously go the extra mile to serve 
students if they thought it essential to do so. 


"What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing/' 
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 

Twelve administrative people served with me on the Cabinet — three deans 
of the university (Everette Walker, John Clark, and Wendell Hess), two business 
managers (Philip Kasch and Kenneth Browning), three deans of students (Anne 
Meierhofer, Jerry Jensen, and Glenn Swichtenberg), three development direc- 
tors, (Lee Short, Larry Hitner, and Richard Whitlock), and one admission direc- 
tor (James Ruoti). Our working style involved direct one-on-one consultation 
as necessary and weekly Cabinet meetings to discuss broader questions. I pre- 
pared the agenda for these meetings after inviting input, as I did for our month- 
ly meetings with the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees. 

During more than half my term, the academic dean and I shared a young 
assistant. Three of the four of these assistants were very able recent Wesleyan 
graduates and the other one held a doctorate from Indiana University. George 
Vinyard VI and Anne Balsamo '81 were the chief staff assistants who prepared 
information for and wrote the two North Central Association self-study reports. 
Darryl Pratscher '73 also worked in this capacity before attending law school. 
Randy Farmer assisted in a number of special projects, including the reform of 
Greek organization rush and pledge activities. He was the only one of the four 
who sat in Cabinet meetings. 

Although student unrest and the need for capital funds seemed to produce a 
series of crises all requiring immediate attention, the most serious problem 
necessitating early action lay in addressing the academic deficiencies set out by 
the 1967 North Central examination. I was assisted in this task by a number of 
concerned faculty. In particular I turned to three young faculty members for 
counsel and assistance during the first two years. They were Wendell Hess, 
chairman of the chemistry department, who became science director and later 
academic dean, Jerry Stone from religion, who headed the humanities division 
for ten years, and Robert Burda, who was chairman of the English department 
for three years. Each of these individuals was elected to one of the four highest 
faculty positions when the new faculty organization became effective in 1970. 


Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

John Clark became dean of the University that year, bringing with him twenty- 
four years of teaching and academic administrative experience primarily at San 
Francisco State and Sonoma State Universities in California. He also had brief 
teaching stints at Buffalo, Beloit, and Stanford, along with a Fulbright lecture- 
ship at the University of Damascus. 

Since Clark's prior experience included the chairmanship of a large depart- 
ment, service on the state-wide California faculty senate, and a deanship of the 
faculty — he was able to inspire a greater degree of confidence in the faculty, 
something that was lacking to a degree, His presence accelerated curricular 
reform and faculty recruiting. Unfortunately, four years after becoming dean 
he suffered a heart attack. Wendell Hess became acting dean for several 
months until Clark recovered. Later Hess was appointed as associate dean to 
divide the load between the two. Less than two years later, Clark experienced a 
second coronary event and he relinquished the dean's role. He was appointed 
as University professor of English and drama and served in that capacity for 
another twelve years. Hess was named dean to succeed him in 1976 after serv- 
ing as a member of the faculty for thirteen years. During the last five years, he 
added the role as director of the science division, and spent the last two years as 
acting or associate dean. He had an excellent sense of the institution and its 
people and invested himself fully in his responsibilities with meticulous atten- 
tion to detail. I felt we were well served by Clark and Hess as academic leaders, 
different as they were in background and demeanor. 

Hess' background in inorganic chemistry complemented my own, as did 
Clark's in humanities. Beginning with the time he substituted for Clark in 1974, 
I worked more closely with him than any other single individual. He was fully 
devoted to developing the faculty and Illinois Wesleyan, and we owe him 
much for his leadership contributions during the next fifteen years. Both deans 
and I, plus Dean Swichtenberg, taught occasionally in our specialties to keep 
the primary purpose of the institution, undergraduate learning, immediately 
before us. 

The key to good organizational planning is neither top down nor bubble up, 
rather it is participation by those who have creative ideas anywhere in the insti- 
tution. However, an organizational structure is necessary, but not one that is so 
tight that suggestions cannot be heard, wherever their source. Some people feel 
they do not have input if their ideas are not adopted, others are good at block- 
ing access when in positions of influence, and still others need encouragement 
to come forward at all. We had a traditional monthly faculty meeting, attended 
by two thirds of the faculty on average. These were not my favorite forums. 
Like other legislative bodies, it was subject to demagoguery. The best display 
of faculty thinking and reflection often took place in smaller groups. 

Each September began with a Fall Faculty Conference and inside speakers, 
chiefly faculty, predominated; I spoke at sixteen of the eighteen conferences. 
Occasional outside speakers were invited, such as the new head of the Central 
States College Association, of which Wesleyan was then a member, the woman 
who was liberal arts college dean at Illinois State University, or the president of 


Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

Grinnell College. Faculty with scholarly projects underway were frequently on 
the agenda to emphasize the need for scholarship and to explain how it was 
done. Student advising was prominently on the program at least four times to 
highlight its role in reducing attrition. Based on faculty reaction, my most suc- 
cessful effort at these conferences was my 1972 talk entitled ''Beating to 
Windward" in which I chronicled our progress amid an external sea of stalling 
enrollments, faculty cutbacks, and compensation disappointment. It was 
encouraging to be able to make headway into the wind. 

My initial investigation of Wesleyan revealed that it could move into the 
front rank of liberal arts colleges, and that this potential was within its reach 
and grasp. There was a diffident attitude among some faculty, trustees, and 
alumni which disclosed a lack of confidence in how good the institution already 
was. I soon realized that my task was to hold up the challenge to these groups 
and indicate how it could be achieved. I did this when I came and repeated 
these aims frequently especially in my Fall Faculty Conference talks. For exam- 
ple, in 1978 as the goals came closer to attainment, my concluding paragraph 
included these remarks: 

"I have said on a number of occasions that this institution has the potential to 
become one of the 100 best liberal arts colleges in the country within a very few 
years. As a matter of fact, Wesleyan is a borderline case for this classification 
today. By some measures we would clearly qualify, by others we would not.... We 
can learn much from our peers, but we must devise our own program to serve our 
own students and unique constituency." 

Beginning in 1971, we held annual two-day planning conferences each sum- 
mer involving fourteen to nineteen persons. The Cabinet members met the first 
evening and the following day and were joined by the faculty directors, the reg- 
istrar, and occasionally other faculty leaders for a second evening and day. 
Half the conferences were held on the campus and half were elsewhere in 
Central Illinois to improve our concentration. The topics dealt with issues that 
required some extensive discussion and formulation if they were to be solved: 
self-study, foundation projects, establishment of objectives, admission, curricu- 
lum changes. They were not decision-making sessions, although decisions 
often followed. Forty persons participated in the fifteen conferences, which 
enabled our collective leadership to engage the subjects of vital concern to the 
institution's future. 

The department heads met monthly to discuss common concerns. Dean 
Hess perceived the need for improving their administrative skills, particularly 
in the case of those newly named to their positions. Therefore, annual summer 
conferences were initiated in 1977. At that time we had eleven department and 
other academic leaders who had three years or less experience in their new 
responsibilities. Grant assistance was available from the Exxon Foundation 
through its Resource Allocation Management Program (RAMP), which was 
attempting to stimulate improved academic management, enabling us to bring 
in several outside consultants and speakers. Topics included faculty evaluation, 
computer services, faculty development, and academic planning. We presented 
.ry information designed to improve effectiveness in faculty recruiting and evalua- 

Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

tion. Graduate follow- up data were reviewed as that work progressed to gain 
wider appreciation of its value. 

Typically, newly appointed academic department and division heads, 
admission counselors, development officers, and student personnel administra- 
tors had little familiarity with human resource management and the need for 
shared goals and objectives if a college or university is to accomplish its educa- 
tional mission. This is true notwithstanding the overriding need for scholarship 
in academic fields or expertise in the various administrative functions. 
Beginning in 1973, when I sent a young dean of students to a two-day manage- 
ment-by-objectives workshop, we dispatched seventy-one of our people in the 
next eight years to similar programs. By 1981, roughly 90 percent of our faculty 
and staff with some managerial responsibility had such an experience. These 
off-campus sessions were supplemented by a number of speakers or workshops 
on the campus, some sponsored by the Exxon RAMP project, mentioned above. 
The principles being stressed were fairly rudimentary objective setting and 
drafting exercises for organizational coherence on major themes. A few faculty 
openly resented basic training in such mundane matters, but no one was forced 
to go, and I am convinced we were more effective as a result. 

One of the rewards of administration is the joy and satisfaction of seeing 
people selected for positions of responsibility grow and move on to larger roles. 
Six examples stand out during my tenure at Wesleyan. Wendell Hess was first 
made director of natural sciences, then associate dean and dean of the 
University, and after I retired he was made provost and served a year as acting 
president. I appointed Jerry Israel as director of social sciences and associate 
dean. He later left Wesleyan to become academic vice president at Simpson 
College. Sue Huseman started as a faculty member before receiving her doctor- 
ate. She was subsequently appointed department head in foreign languages 
and director of humanities. Again, following my retirement, she was named 
associate dean. She left Illinois Wesleyan in 1989 to become academic vice pres- 
ident of the University of Maine (Farmington). Similarly, Roger Schnaitter was 
appointed psychology department head and later science director. 
Subsequently, he was named to be associate dean and acting provost. Carole 
Brandt was appointed director of the Drama School, and following her resigna- 
tion from that post, she became chairperson of the drama department, first at 
the University of Florida and later at Perm State. Sammye Greer was promoted 
to chairperson of our English Department, and left to become dean at Converse 
College, then at Mercer University, and still later provost at Wittenberg 
University. Each individual grew because of his or her own exceptional abili- 
ties, and I found encouragement in witnessing that progress. 

It became apparent to me fairly early that Wesleyan had no mechanism for 
keeping its administrative staff and supervisors informed of our changing pro- 
grams, goals, and objectives. They were a diverse group from admission coun- 
selors to maintenance foremen, numbering from thirty to thirty-five persons. 
We devised a format of three meetings per year beginning in the fall of 1970. 
These meetings were largely informational in content, and lasted one hour and 

a half. 


Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

My desk was always a disgrace to the office and a bane to my secretaries, 
although I usually had a good recall for where things were and what had the 
highest priority. Ruth Ward, who had incredible secretarial skills, struggled 
with the chaos first. She was succeeded by Frankie Pettit, who was determined 
to master the situation. When family duties called her away, Marge Shuman 
assumed the task, and her good nature and understanding of faculty and stu- 
dents provided an ideal combination for the office. If my genetic inheritance 
endowed me with an austere and reserved appearance, those who got beneath 
the exterior probably found me unintimidating, firm but gentle, deliberate not 
facile, and eager to find some humor amid the irony. 


"Ideal teachers... never allow themselves to accept the false dichotomy between 
teaching and research and study: they embrace both and are dominated 
by neither." 

Association of American Colleges, 1985 

The cutting edge of any educational institution is its faculty — their classroom 
skills, their scholarly backgrounds and activity, their ability to work individual- 
ly and together toward common goals and achievements. Even before I was 
elected by the trustees, I was eagerly assimilating information on the Wesleyan 
faculty, and my initial exposure to the five members of the search committee 
was mutually stimulating and satisfying. I met a few more when I spoke at the 
March 1968 faculty meeting and still others at a reception in the Student Center. 
Real comprehension awaited sit-down interviews with each faculty member in 
my office during my first year at Illinois Wesleyan. 

There were clearly deficiencies, identified by the North Central visiting team 
in 1967, especially in the inadequacy of scholarly activities. If this was to 
change, I had to become visibly involved in faculty recruiting and, in particular, 
in raising our sights as to the quality of faculty we ought to be trying to attract. 
This was not an easy task. In several cases there were at least two levels of fac- 
ulty supervision who were satisfied with things the way they were. I tried to 
send signals about the kinds of talent we should seek, and to involve younger 
and more intellectually vigorous faculty members in interviewing and enter- 
taining. I asked for teaching demonstrations and attempted to be much more 
active and aggressive in recruiting the best that was available. I suggested that 
we fly in John Heyl (history) from Germany for an interview, I literally found 
Robert Bray (English) on a visit to the University of Chicago, and I personally 
called Michael Young (history) at Harvard to encourage his interest and a visit. 
More articulate and outspoken critics would have been hard to find. In the first 
two years, we changed deans, two division directors, and three department 
heads; the following year, five more department heads were replaced — mostly 


Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

from retirements, deaths, or departure. These shifts in leadership permitted an 
infusion of new ideas. 

The first year seemed hectic at the time, but in retrospect, our appointments 
look very good. In addition to Heyl, Sue Huseman (French) and Roger 
Schnaitter (psychology) came to Wesleyan in 1969. The latter two served as 
associate dean, and all three became department heads and division directors. 
Each year created new opportunities and challenges in faculty recruitment. For 
the critically important position of head of the biology department, a search 
committee chaired by one of our trustees, Harold Hodge, a nationally 
renowned pharmacologist, found Bruce Criley. A master teacher and leader, 
Criley quickly transformed a good program into an excellent one. 

Including temporary replacements, our faculty turnover averaged 11 percent 
annually during the eighteen years; we appointed 250 full-time faculty during 
the period — 375 faculty served in 125 positions. I involved myself in interview- 
ing each prospective faculty candidate, as had my predecessor, Dr. Bertholf. 

Occasionally a small organization like Wesleyan with many faculty and staff 
specialists, each with little or no backup, becomes embarrassed when replace- 
ment or even patchwork cannot be arranged when a coalescence of misfortunes 
hits all at once. Such a set of circumstances occurred in 1974-75 within a fifteen 
month period. Less than a month after John Clark's coronary, I developed a 
disc-problem in the lower back, which required ten days of bed rest, luckily at 
home. (Fortunately, this was the only significant illness I experienced while at 
Wesleyan). This left Acting Dean Hess to conduct a faculty meeting and an 
Executive Committee meeting in my absence. A faculty division director and a 


Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

department head became seriously ill; the latter died in little more than a year. 
Two senior professors died, one in sociology (Max Pape) and one in nursing 
(Annabelle Hartranft). Four leaders had to be replaced — two were Cabinet 
members and a third a school director. Somehow we put it back together, not 
without the feeling that our mettle was being tested. 

When I arrived, reappointment, tenure, and promotion were reviewed with 
the Faculty Senate consisting of the two deans and the tenured full professors. 
It didn't work very well. A third of the total of eighteen were music professors, 
some of whom knew very little about faculty in the rest of the University. 
Similar but less dramatic distortions in representation were present in the other 
ten professors. The Faculty Senate also leaked badly. The next morning after 
Senate meetings, stories were told in the coffee circles about who said what 
about whom. This discouraged a frank exchange of views based on sincere 
attempts at evaluation. 

Beginning in the fall of 1970, 1 asked the newly elected Personnel Council to 
choose four of its members to sit with the dean and me in a tenure and 
advancement (T and A) committee. At the same time, the evaluation form was 
revised and expanded to gain fuller information from each candidate and 
supervisor. This upgraded process enabled us to do a better job of faculty eval- 
uation. In the next sixteen years, 42 faculty members served on the T and A 
committee, several as many as three or four times, in an effort to fairly judge 
their peers. Along with original appointments, this was probably the most 
important action determining the quality of the institution. 

The annual evaluation process applied to all faculty and staff and had the 
effect of causing a few otherwise dormant members, including senior staff and 
tenured faculty, to consider their career development. This produced resent- 
ment in some quarters. The practice was validated a few years later by a study 
of twenty colleges conducted in 1979 under the auspices of the Association of 
American Colleges. In a summary of the results William C. Nelson wrote: 

'To be successful an evaluation program must include all faculty. On many 
campuses we visited formal evaluation systems included only the non-tenured 
faculty. This was damaging in two ways. It caused resentment among non- 
tenured faculty and provided no help for tenured faculty seeking to renew 

In the fall of 1968, 35 percent of full-time faculty held a doctoral degree. 
Almost half of faculty (as IWU classified them) were in the library, physical 
education, fine arts, and nursing fields which did not then expect or require 
doctorates. Eighteen years later, 64 percent possessed a doctorate. The avail- 
ability of faculty improved in the 1970s, although shortages persisted or 
appeared in business, nursing, computer science, mathematics, and occasional- 
ly other fields. The rise in the proportion of doctorates also reflected a persis- 
tent effort toward that goal throughout the period. Half of our doctorally pre- 
pared faculty had been awarded degrees by the Big Ten universities in the 
Midwest, the University of Chicago and Washington University. An additional 
one-fifth came from the top echelon of public and private universities on the 

Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

East and West coasts. The largest numbers in 1985-86 came from the universi- 
ties of Illinois, Northwestern, Iowa, Minnesota, Indiana, and California 

The percentage of Liberal Arts College faculty with doctorates rose from 
slightly more than half in 1968 to more than 80 percent after 1980. Strangely, 
there were a few liberal arts department heads who did not understand the 
advantage of pursuing doctorates for all faculty initially. More than a few fac- 
ulty required prodding to get them moving in doctoral programs, despite the 
career advantages and the existence of educational leaves. We provided both 
incentives and pressure for more faculty to become involved in scholarly activi- 
ty and research, rather broadly defined, and we saw the portion of the Liberal 
Arts College faculty publishing work in the past couple of years rise from 10 
percent to 40 percent. 

I was told by faculty members on several occasions that my expectations 
were excessive, and if true, I regret this. If, on the other hand, we have a better 
faculty as a result of this increased intensity, then I feel rewarded, regardless of 
discomfort or perception. Some of my greatest disappointments were those 
instances in which a faculty member had the capacity for scholarly accomplish- 
ment, but failed to do so because of poor organization, easy diversion to less 
taxing activities, or inertia. Often I felt like an admonishing parent, urging a 
child to live up to his potential. 

We had only four doctorates in the Fine Arts College in 1968, although they 
were needed for art history, dramatic literature, and music theory, music litera- 
ture, and music education. Performance doctorates became increasingly preva- 
lent as the years progressed, especially in music. By 1985, more than half of our 
Fine Arts faculty held doctorates, predominantly in music, including all of the 
fields mentioned above except one. 

The situation changed somewhat later in nursing, although we always met 
the expectation of the accrediting society, the National League for Nursing, that 
the director hold a doctorate. In recognition of the trend in nursing education, 
we announced in 1985 that any faculty appointed in the future would be 
expected to acquire a doctorate if they were to attain tenure. Existing faculty 
were encouraged to utilize educational leave opportunities to pursue programs 
if they desired to keep up with the profession. 

Sabbatical and educational leave opportunities existed at Wesleyan when I 
arrived. During my first year, one of the faculty used his leave to paint his 
house. I did not think that was the purpose of leaves. Subsequently, with fac- 
ulty advice, we instituted a peer review of proposals for leaves and requested 
follow-up reports after completion. This led to better preparation for leave 
activities and an expectation of accountability when it was over. In response to 
a faculty suggestion, we instituted a January leave program in 1982, available 
after three years at Wesleyan or between sabbaticals, to enable faculty to start a 
project or perhaps bring one to fruition. 

Other faculty development opportunities included travel funds for profes- 
sional meetings or research trips, never used by some faculty, grant funds to 


Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

initiate research, sponsoring of faculty at computer courses, and suggesting 
mentoring relationships when someone appeared to have stalled. When we 
were trying to improve student writing skills across the curriculum in 1978, the 
faculty organized a two-day writing workshop attended by fifty-five of their 
colleagues. Later, a similar workshop was sponsored on oral skills. 

Recognition of faculty members by professional colleagues was indicative of 
Wesley an' s rising status in the academic world. Carl Neumeyer was named as 
president of the National Association of Schools of Music in 1969. Steady con- 
tributions in snail identification led to Dorothea Franzen's (biology) election as 
president of the American Malacological Union. John Wenum (political sci- 
ence) added to his service in the Illinois Constitutional Convention by being 
elected to the McLean County Board where he put his knowledge of local gov- 
ernment into practice. Roger Schnaitter served as a contributing editor to two 
journals in behavioral psychology. The Association of English Departments 
chose Sammy Greer as president. Clayton Highum became president of the 
Illinois Library Association. As our participation in the American College 
Theatre Festival grew, Carole Brandt was elected to membership on its board. 
Finally, the American Society of Mammalogists recognized Tom Griffiths' s 
exhaustive investigation of nectar feeding bats by devoting an entire issue of its 
journal to the study's results. 

The faculty displayed many examples of good teaching, demonstrating plur- 
al answers to the question: what is good teaching? Most involve students 


Octet of Century Club Honorees 1985, (left to right) Jerry Israel (history), Sue 
Huseman (foreign language), Wendell Hess (chemistry), William Beadles 
(insurance), Larry Colter (philosophy), Dorthea Franzen (biology), Robert 
Hippensteele (biology), and John Heyl (history). 

Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

actively in the learning process. Some are performance oriented, but the bril- 
liant lecturer is less likely to score well with students in this generation than in 
the past. A few faculty members are skilled in the Socratic method, using ques- 
tions and responses to shape a discussion toward a goal. Many of us, however, 
are not able to make general use of this ideal — there are too many answers 
pointing in too many directions. Media usage has become more popular as a 
means of introducing variety. Command of the subject is likely to be associated 
with involvement in scholarly activities, research, and policy discussions, which 
readily translate into respect when carefully interwoven to enliven discussions. 
Most important for the faculty member is a genuine concern for students, mak- 
ing certain the learning relates to where they are and whether they are respon- 
sive to it. The best of faculty communicate high expectations to the learners, 
eliciting a reciprocal reaction of enthusiasm that can be used to sustain effort 
when the going is hard. 

These skills are amenable to improvement, as Wesleyan faculty demonstrat- 
ed on many occasions. Classroom visitation by colleagues is useful, especially 
when accompanied by frank and helpful comments. Videotapes for self-analy- 
sis are beneficial. An open ear for student feedback is essential, accompanied 
by a careful eye on alumni success, and occasional external reviews. 
Effectiveness is measurable if we are sensitive to its indicia, which were over- 
whelmingly positive at Wesleyan in my experience. 


"A free government is a complicated piece of 
machinery, the nice and exact adjustment of whose 
springs, wheels, and weights, is not yet well 
comprehended by the artists of the age, and still 
less by the people." 

John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, May 19, 1821 

Although the faculty had substantial input into the academic decision-mak- 
ing of the University, no formal arrangement establishing this delegation of 
responsibility existed when I arrived in 1968. A governing document had been 
recommended in 1958 by a visiting team from the University Senate of the 
Methodist Church and again as a result of the North Central Association review 
a decade later. To fulfill this need, a committee was appointed in the fall of 
1969 consisting of Donald Brown, chairman (political science), Fred Brian (art), 
Alberta Hilton (nursing), George Polites (mathematics), and Geoffrey Story 
(religion). The pre-existing arrangements included the Dean's Council, consist- 
ing of the school and divisional directors, for curricular questions, and the 
Faculty Senate, made up of full professors, to consult on personnel matters. 
Neither provided any avenue for elected faculty voice and neither one worked 


Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

very well, primarily because the senior faculty members tended to defer to one 
another in their areas of responsibility. 

A first draft of the constitution was forthcoming the following spring, and in 
keeping with many similar enterprises, it attempted to fix the inadequacy of the 
prior system. Two councils were to be elected at large from the faculty, one to 
deal with personnel questions, and the other with curriculum. This was basi- 
cally the format of the final document, although many hours of discussion were 
necessary to consider all suggestions and to coordinate with the charter and by- 
laws of the Board of Trustees through the assistance of the Board's Secretary, 
William Goebel. After a cliff-hanging attempt to effect last minute changes on 
the floor of the faculty meeting, the proposed constitution was adopted in 
February 1970 by a vote of 76 to 8. 

By and large the councils worked effectively to express faculty interests with- 
in the University. They were fairly unique in faculty organization, as opposed 
to one elected faculty senate with committees for special tasks. In order to 
interface with the two councils, I suggested two arrangements. One was to 
request the Personnel Council to designate half its members as a tenure and 
advancement committee, as described above. The other was to request that the 
two ranking members of each council meet with the dean and me periodically 
as a faculty advisory committee to keep me abreast of faculty interests and to 
provide an avenue of communication. 

The constitution was revised extensively fourteen years later after experi- 
ence had accumulated in operating under its auspices. The basic format of the 
two councils was retained, the Tenure and Advancement Committee was for- 
mally established as advisory in personnel matters, and a new Hearing 
Committee was provided to consider cases involving dismissal for cause of 
tenured faculty. In addition, the constitution was related to the Faculty 
Handbook for procedures adopted by the Councils and Committees. 

The thirty-eight faculty who served as leaders on one of the two councils, 
who were also the Faculty Advisory Committee members, together with the 
forty-two who were on the Tenure and Advancement Committee from 1970 to 
1986 contributed many hours to the successful operation of faculty governing 
responsibilities. Often their efforts seemed underappreciated by their col- 
leagues in light of the burden they assumed in addition to teaching and scholar- 
ly requirements. It proved to be an excellent preparation for greater responsi- 
bility later — all of the in-house promotions to division director (seven — Stone, 
Hess, Schnaitter, Israel, Story, Heyl, Huseman) or school director (one — 
Brandt), associate dean (two — Hess, Israel), or dean (one — Hess), had earlier 
served in one or more of the elected leadership positions. I think this validated 
that dedicated individuals could grow within the Wesleyan environment under 
the governing arrangements instituted in 1970. 


Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

"I beseech you,... think it possible you may be mistaken." 
Oliver Cromwell, letter to the Church of Scotland, 1650 

There are popular and unpopular decisions regarding people in a university, 
and if it is to operate well, there is little chance of avoiding the latter. 
Nevertheless, the close calls are uncomfortable for all concerned. The opportu- 
nities for confusion or misinformation are enhanced when emotions run high, 
as they often did when compensation or reappointment decisions were made — 
when the worth of a person is seemingly in the balance. For that reason, notifi- 
cation of termination was handled by the dean and me, unpleasant though it 
was. Then we knew what had been said, what message had been delivered and 
how it was done. 

Compensation is fraught with significance in academia for two reasons. 
First, the road to a faculty position is long, arduous and full of sacrifices, both in 
financial and emotional terms. Once arrived, the rewards are important, even if 
American society does not choose to reward professors very well in relative 
terms. Second, salaries and related benefits are an indication of personal value 
in comparison to those in other institutions as well as others within one's own 
institution. We selected as our aggregate target to have average total compen- 
sation (salary plus benefits) in the top 20 percent for faculty in four-year col- 
leges throughout the country, public and private (Category IIB in AAUP group- 

Two economist presidents — with Robert Strotz, Northwestern, 
Commencement 1976 


Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

ing). We started below this target, and it was achieved for all four faculty ranks 
in three years during the middle of my tenure, from 1976 to 1979. After that, we 
slipped back somewhat as inflation persisted in the early 1980s. Inasmuch as 
Wesleyan was 75 to 80 percent dependent on tuition for revenue, we were 
reluctant to raise tuition as fast as some of our competitors for fear of losing stu- 
dents to the public universities. Actually, we achieved the top 20 percent target 
for the full and associate professor ranks about two-thirds of the years after 
1971-72 (when the AAUP began grouping data in this fashion), and more than a 
third of the years for the two lower ranks. 

Our annual increases ranged from 5 to 10 percent per year from 1969 to 1986, 
and averaged more than 7 percent, or at the same rate that tuition was 
increased. This was a little better than the increase in consumer prices during 
the period. In addition to general increases, we gave merit raises of another 1 to 
5 percent to perhaps a fifth to a third of the faculty and staff, and a few smaller 
adjustments (less than five per year) to those who needed a nudge to remind 
them of less than adequate progress. These plus and minus adjustments were 
based on self-evaluations and those by supervisors, with added input from the 
Tenure and Advancement Committee for the 40 percent or more of the faculty 
discussed annually. 

Fringe benefits included the retirement plan, group life and disability insur- 
ance, medical insurance, and family tuition assistance. The retirement and 
tuition benefits had been established earlier and were relatively generous. For 
example, in addition to free tuition at Wesleyan, the plan paid up to three-quar- 
ters of IWU tuition for a child at another institution. The insurance programs 
appeared inadequate and we improved them substantially a few years after I 
joined Wesleyan. Together, these benefits compared favorably with most other 
colleges and universities and were designed to encourage long-term relation- 
ships between the institution and faculty and staff. 

For an institution dedicated to significant upgrading, there were predictable 
needs to discontinue a few faculty and staff. We arranged the departure of six 
faculty with tenure and also five staff with several years' experience during my 
eighteen years. These were traumatic events, although I considered them a nec- 
essary part of fair administration. There were, in addition, an average of almost 
two non-reappointments per year after four years or more of service — in 
essence tenure denial, since we tried to avoid letting them run for the maximum 
term of seven years if it was clear they were not making satisfactory progress. 
Most of these decisions were made after repeated attempts at remediation. I 
can recall only one instance in which the Tenure and Advancement Committee 
did not concur in the decision — the Committee split three to two. In that case 
the decision was to retain the faculty member with the concurrence of the 
supervisor. I think the system worked as well as it did because when disagree- 
ments were voiced, in practically all cases, a consensus emerged. 

My most rancorous discord with the faculty occurred in 1980 when a dis- 
gruntled, departing first-year faculty member, in an attempt to retaliate and 
embarrass the University, awarded "A"s to all of his students — 103 in total, 


Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

including one student who had dropped out during the first week. As occa- 
sionally happens in complex situations, grades were not the only question at 
issue, but we could not divulge these matters because of their confidential 
nature. Most of the grades (84) were recorded, including those for all graduat- 
ing seniors. The department head, the dean, and the registrar then adjusted 
eighteen grades using gradebook and other information, and invited students 
to submit papers or other evidence if they disagreed with the grades. Grade 
questions were then referred to the Academic Appeals Board as prescribed by 
the faculty's procedure. I was informed of the situation, although I had not 
taken any part in the matter. 

The earlier non-reappointment decision and the grade questions led to a 
number of contacts between parents, the dean, and trustees, for a combination 
of three distinct and differing reasons. Once settled that summer, legal counsel 
insisted that the matter not be reopened. The dean and I made an explanation 
of the situation to the Faculty Advisory Committee the following fall. When a 
report was made to the faculty, the matter was quickly interpreted as a breach 
of academic freedom by several faculty members and referred to the 
Curriculum Council. The Council focused only on the grading question, ignor- 
ing other aspects of the case, and without asking for any information from the 
dean or me, recommended reinstatement of the remaining grades that students 
had not bothered to appeal. Unwisely, I attempted to defend the action of the 
department head and the dean to the faculty. Minds had already been made 
up. My entry into the fray only served to heighten the tension, and the faculty 
voted overwhelmingly to support the Council's recommendation, by now a 
year after the fact. Since I could not fully explain because of possible litigation 
and other complications requiring confidentiality, it would have been better not 
to try. 

At the time, our posture was influenced by the existence of six potential law- 
suits incurring attorney's fees. That many was rare for us, although it hap- 
pened elsewhere. I later learned that one large neighboring university custom- 
arily carried 175 open cases. One of our cases consisted of an Equal 
Employment Opportunity Commission complaint charging reverse discrimina- 
tion made by a terminated ISU faculty member who had applied, along with 
130 others, for a position filled by a woman at Wesleyan. It was a nuisance 
complaint, but it cost us many hours of preparation. One of the tenure termina- 
tions involved a faculty member who, as alleged in the national media, had 
published a book which contained similarities to one written by W. Somerset 
Maugham. The faculty did its work well in evaluating the matter, pointing to 
similarities in plot, dialogue, and improper transposition of a French idiom. It 
was all the more regrettable that the person was capable of being an excellent 

We lost nine active faculty members by early death from 1968 to 1986 — each 
gave us something we would not otherwise have had. I was asked to provide 
eulogies for five of them and I felt it was a singular privilege to say something 
worthy of these colleagues and their contributions to the life of the University. 


Chapter 3 Faculty and Staff 

Lines from the French aviator, St. Exupery seemed to fit the former air force 
officer, Max Pape, who was passionate in everything he did, but particularly in 
his respect for students. I found words for Carl Neumeyer from our own 
Arthur Westbrook and Frank Jordan, and from Dean Wilfred Bane of Indiana 
University praising one of the most civil of music directors. Rupert Kilgore was 
capable of providing his own epitaph, interpreting art in relation to past and 
contemporary cultural mores. Quaker Bunyan Andrew was different, having 
traversed the continent from rural North Carolina to Berkeley before coming to 
rest at Wesley an to ponder history and the historians. Together these nine facul- 
ty gave more than a century and a half of good teaching and leadership in help- 
ing to make the University what it is today. 

These faculty were characteristic of the 375 with whom I served for nearly a 
score of years. The faculty found it possible to inspire students in diverse ways, 
to pursue scholarship under adverse circumstances, to assist one another in col- 
legial association. In the most difficult circumstances or darkest hours, I could 
count on someone to step forth with a word of understanding and encourage- 
ment, and I am grateful for these associations. 


Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

Chapter 4 
Academic Programs: Curriculum 

"Scientia et Sapientia" (et plus) 

Motto on the IWU seal designed by Professors John Wesley Powell and 
Jabez R. Jaques in 1866. 


n my inaugural remarks in 1969, 1 said: "We need to 
understand what we are — a combination of distinctive undergraduate profes- 
sional education in the fine arts and nursing with a balanced liberal arts college 
program, a unique small university in the Midwest. Nowhere is there a superi- 
or stimulative juxtaposition of such breadth in music, art, and drama along 
with the more practical interests in nursing, business, and finance, contained 
in an intimate liberal arts college setting." Later, on a number of occasions, I 
remarked that if we were designing an institution in a fresh start, we would 
probably not come up with one like Illinois Wesleyan — but it works, and very 
well, so we should treasure it. The other side of that pleasant inheritance was 
that it was a costly combination of academic programs and we had constantly 
to keep in mind that as the curriculum evolved there were financial constraints 
on what could be added. 

By necessity, a curriculum is constantly changing, as demonstrated by 
recalling aspects of the evolution in Wesleyan history. The preparatory school 
or academy, which was part of the University at its inception, was terminated 
in 1919 after public high schools had become universal. The Law School ended 
in 1927 after a successful fifty-four year run, and a sixteen-year experiment 
with a junior college of music in Springfield was discontinued in 1954. Change 
is inevitable and desirable, the only question is what change, and when? 

The direction of curricular reform necessary at Wesleyan in 1968 was the 
improvement of programs and departments within the Liberal Arts College. 
This, in turn, required the clarification and integration of our role in higher 
education and how to get there. Elements of proliferation had crept into the 
curriculum. With the resources available, we were close to being over-extend- 
ed. We had a tenuous master's program in music, and at least two other ele- 


Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

merits of the University aspired to offer master's degree work. At the same 
time, there were weaknesses within the undergraduate programs — our core 
undertaking — which required attention. Priority had to be given to bolstering 
the undergraduate curriculum and trimming sails in a few areas to make the 
improvements possible. 

With literally hundreds of competitive college opportunities available with- 
in two hundred miles of Bloomington at widely varying costs to students, our 
task was to emphasize the comparative advantages the institution already pos- 
sessed. Our strategy was to promote the programs offered that were clearly 
better than those of competitive colleges and universities, to make them still 
more attractive, and to improve other areas that would add to our superiority. 
In a field within which change is continuous and other institutions are seeking 
similar advantages, this was not an easy task. Further, the communication of 
information on the comparative quality of educational programs is far from 
perfect, which complicates the understanding of prospective students and their 
advisers about the available alternatives. Our mechanisms for the assessment 
of what we were accomplishing were threefold: (1) internal reviews or self- 
study by faculty and staff, students, alumni and other constituencies; (2) 
accrediting association or certifying agency reviews external to the institution; 
and (3) the use of outside departmental or program consultants. 

Regular internal five-year planning was initiated in 1968-69 when I request- 
ed that department heads, division and school directors prepare planning doc- 


Self-Study Committee 198 1 (seated left to right): Lynn Folse '82 (student), 
Pamela Muirhead (English), Wendell Hess (Dean), Anne Woodtli (nursing), 
Carole Brandt (drama), standing: Roger Schnaitter (psychology), Jerry 
Israel (history), Anne Balsamo (administrative asst). Not Shown, Robert 
Harrington (economics) 

Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

uments. Some of these efforts left much to be desired at first, but they 
improved as experience was acquired. They also were better after our annual 
planning conferences began in 1971 and following efforts by Dean Hess to 
specify and focus on the types of information to be included. These plans had 
the benefit of eliminating many surprises and enabled us to prepare more thor- 
oughly for changes to be implemented. Various constituencies were tapped in 
the Year of Re-evaluation in 1970 through multiple efforts involving visiting 
committees, alumni, faculty, and students. The use of these groups was 
refined and continued. Formal efforts were launched a couple of years later to 
gain systematic feedback from alumni, and the process was expanded and 
improved as time went on. Each of the North Central visits (in 1973 and 1983) 
was preceded by an elaborate self-study conducted by faculty and staff. The 
second visit was followed two years later with the Task Force on 1990, an 
attempt to focus attention on the future through the transition period in presi- 
dential and academic leadership. 

As mentioned earlier, the North Central Association visiting team in 1967 
had pointed to several academic deficiencies in the University, had called for a 
consultant to assist "in correcting weaknesses cited by the visiting team," and 
had granted re-accreditation for five years rather than the usual ten. Specific 
criticisms included the following: the humanities division was identified as the 
weakest area of the University, "the faculty is not generally active in scholar- 
ship," and there was evidence of course proliferation. 

These and other problems had to be dealt with promptly and occupied 
much of my time during my first five years at Wesleyan. By the 1973 North 
Central visit, the report found: "In the judgment of the examining team, IWU 
is a strong institution. A number of changes and improvements have been 
made in the last few years." Re-accreditation was granted this time for ten 
years, although shortcomings in the humanities and social sciences were still 
indicated. We had more work to do in the Liberal Arts College to strengthen 
those programs. 

Before the next North Central team visit in 1983, the weaknesses had been 
remedied and re-accreditation was again granted for a decade. That time, the 
team included a nursing dean from a state university, and they recommended 
making the doctorate an expectation for nursing faculty. That suggestion was 
soon implemented. There are specialized accreditation and certification 
requirements in teacher education, music, and nursing. Comments on these 
reviews are made in the sections dealing with these activities. 

Due to the specialized nature of the components of higher education, pro- 
gram, department, division, or school reviews are advantageous to determine 
the quality of what is being offered, to assess its contemporaneity and content. 
I came to Wesleyan advocating reviews by outside consultants every four to 
five years. While we did not achieve that frequency, it served well as a guide, 
and in fact we had fifty-five reviews during my eighteen years. They were 
helpful in alerting us to problems or in confirming our own judgments. 
Reviews were welcomed by department heads seeking improvement. Those 
comfortable with the status quo occasionally showed hostility. Department head 57 

Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

input was invited in the selection of consultants, although the choice was reserved 
to the dean, and the results were always shared with the faculty in the field. 



"The endless controversies whether language, -philosophy, mathematics, or science 
supplies the best mental training, whether general education should be chiefly lit- 
erary or chiefly scientific, have no practical lesson for us today. This University 
recognizes no real antagonism between literature and science, and consents to no 
such narrow alternatives as mathematics or classics, science or metaphysics. We 
would have them all, and at their best." 

Charles W. Eliot, inaugural address, Harvard University, 1869 

"If the university repudiates the call to train technologists, it will not survive; if it 
repudiates the cultivation of non-practical values, it will cease to merit the title of 

Sir Eric Ashby, Technology and the Academics, 1958 

A listing of major program additions and discontinuances understates the 
extent of academic change within the Liberal Arts College, although it points 
to the concentration of effort required if we were to achieve improvements in 
the quality of our programs. There were four deletions — anthropology, home 
economics, speech, and men's physical education. Each occurred for different 
reasons. Anthropology had been offered as a major only four years when it 
was phased out in 1972. Only a handful of students had elected the field and 
the faculty was never added to make it viable. We had too many other needs 
for limited resources, and it appeared unwise to continue the major. In home 
economics, the Wesleyan program was the smallest in the state. We discontin- 
ued the major in 1972, and one of our own graduates, by then a professor at a 
major university, recommended ending most of our remaining offerings in 
1975. Speech presented a different sort of problem. We had one outstanding 
faculty member among three who did not get along well together. A consul- 
tant from a large university found the curriculum outdated and over-extend- 
ed. We clearly could not correct the difficulties with the faculty available, so 
the major was terminated and the one remaining faculty member was added 
to the Drama School. 

In the case of physical education, our hand was forced by federal Title IX 
legislation in 1972 requiring equal opportunities for women, although we had 
not received any indication of interest in a major for women at Wesleyan. 
Rather than add faculty and recruit students for a women's major, we consult- 
ed with our men's physical education faculty and others outside the 
University and opted to discontinue the men's major in 1978. These deletions 
made resources available to strengthen other programs. 

Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

Accounting was added as a major offering in 1974, even though no course or 
faculty additions were necessary at the time. For a number of years we 
arranged for students to prepare for the CPA examination by joining the 
review course at Illinois State and later offered the course at Wesleyan after our 
numbers grew. It became one of our strong programs; students frequently 
scored among the top one hundred taking the CPA examination nationally. As 
computer interest expanded, we recognized it by establishing a joint major 
with mathematics, a development more fully described later. 

Liberal arts departments varied in number of faculty from three to nine, 
making it possible for one or two individual faculty to have a sizable impact on 
the quality and following which the programs attracted. Bruce Criley assem- 
bled an outstanding faculty in biology — Robert Hippensteele, Jon Dey, Lou 
Verner, and Tom Griffiths — and attracted excellent students in what became 
one of our headline programs. Wendell Hess obtained American Chemical 
Society (ACS) approval for our chemistry major, and both he and David Bailey 
strengthened a department that much earlier had produced a president of the 
ACS, Carl Marvel. 

Opinions will differ, yet after 1980 we had two or three science departments 
gaining national attention in terms of faculty scholarship and student achieve- 
ment on graduation. Roger Schnaitter became a towering presence of scholar- 
ly accomplishment in psychology; when he spoke, we listened. At least one 
social science department and one or two in humanities were achieving simi- 
lar recognition. The quartet of Jerry Israel, Paul Bushnell, John Heyl, and 
Michael Young, each as different as their fields of interest, helped bring history 
into the lives of our students. Heyl enjoyed portraying various historical fig- 
ures to heighten student interest and even wrote a play on Karl Marx, per- 
formed in the experimental theatre. More important, we had many good 
departments and none that was inadequate. 

Many changes were gradual and subtle. A modest increase in enrollment 
(circa 5 percent) during my first two years and a paucity of freshmen course 
offerings led to a serious imbalance in the curriculum. When there are inade- 
quate spaces and alternatives for new students, things get tense. Many faculty 
wish understandably to teach upper level courses, and if the department heads 
do not carefully provide enough alternative options for freshmen, registration 
becomes a sticky process. Early recognition of this problem by faculty leader- 
ship brought resolution, not without trauma and student disappointment. 
Helpful changes included a new fine arts course designed by Jerry Stone (reli- 
gion) for freshmen, which included a sampling of the numerous performance 
events available on the campus. The upper level humanities course was 
opened to a limited number of able freshmen. Later a humanities course for 
freshmen was developed, and the then-popular sociology principles course 
was expanded. Most importantly, careful monitoring of the spaces available 
by those handling the rolling registration of freshmen during the July orienta- 
tion sessions for new students provided better options. 


Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

The 1972 self-study committee analyzed the 1967 North Central judgments: 
"students are taking too many courses and faculty are teaching too many class- 
es," and "have fewer hours of class meetings per week." It recommended 
establishing a course unit system calling for faculty to teach seven courses per 
year and students to take nine. This reduced faculty contact hours by approxi- 
mately one-seventh and entailed the reduction of course offerings by almost as 
much. The plan was adopted by the faculty and implemented in 1974. 

That year a General Education Task Force of ten faculty and two students 
was created under the leadership of John Wenum (political science). It deliv- 
ered a preliminary report in the spring of 1975 and a final report in 1976. The 
Curriculum Council chose to make several revisions before making its recom- 
mendations to the faculty. The changes adopted that fall reduced required 
courses from sixteen to fourteen of the total of thirty-four necessary for a liberal 
arts degree and enabled students to take a wider variety of options in meeting 
these requirements. 

A single semester course (or proficiency) in English was the only unalterable 
degree expectation. The religion and foreign language requirements were 
retained, although the latter had already been reduced to three course units, 
and a new course requirement in the fine arts was added, somewhat in 
advance of the practice becoming more widespread among other colleges and 
universities. A bachelor of science degree option was retained chiefly for busi- 
ness majors, where quantitative skills were substituted for those in foreign lan- 
guage. This option was eliminated in 1989. 

The continuance of the foreign language requirement, in contrast to its tem- 
porary abandonment by much of higher education, owes much to the adapt- 
ability and innovation of the foreign language faculty, especially to the leader- 
ship provided by Sue Huseman, who is a teacher of unambiguous ability. She 
has few peers in classroom performance and was able to inspire her colleagues 
in improving teaching techniques. With my encouragement, the Spanish facul- 
ty developed a course emphasizing the language for medical personnel, recog- 
nizing the medical direction of many of our students. The most important 
change was the shift from the language grammar approach to the oral-aural 
emphasis on student ability to speak and understand a second language. The 
faculty made language study enjoyable, and students responded enthusiastically. 

The three-course language requirement could be taken in one year, using 
the January term for the second class, in a year-and-one-half, or by utilizing a 
two-week intensive trailer course offered early in the summer. The faculty pro- 
moted a concept called "Foreign Language as an Ancillary Skill," offering a 
"certificate of fluency" to those non-majors who qualified, encouraged foreign 
travel and study, and arranged double majors with business and other fields. 
National recognition became evident when faculty were called on to give pre- 
sentations on foreign language pedagogy by several national associations. It 
became one of our success stories. 

The division of business and economics was newly created within the 
College of Liberal Arts in 1968, although instruction in these subjects, as well as 

Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

the major in insurance, had existed for many years. William Beadles retired in 
that year, and Robert Harrington became the director for the next twenty-one 
years. Beadles was a difficult person to replace, yet Harrington saw a growth 
in student interest in business and economics from less than 15 percent of the 
student body to more than a quarter. Because of this rapid rise, faculty in the 
division consistently carried heavy course loads. New faculty members were 
difficult to find, but persistence yielded steady improvement in the quality of 
this important collection of programs, including the new emphasis in accounting. 

Largely an outgrowth of faculty interest instigated by Sammye Greer 
(English) and John Heyl (history), freshmen seminars were established in 1980 
as an option for able students not needing the regimen of a basic writing 
course. The seminars enabled faculty from across the campus to participate in 
tailoring a subject to involve students in discussing and writing about ques- 
tions of value in a disciplinary context. Since they were open only by invita- 
tion, students found them hard to decline and stimulating once enrolled. 
Typically, four or five sections were offered each fall. 

In an effort to reduce the need for double majors but yet acknowledge less 
than full major study in a second field, I requested that the faculty consider sec- 
ondary concentrations. Doing so might also vitiate the felt need for full majors 
in business, which by the 1980s was claiming a quarter of all majors at 
Wesley an as well as nationally. Beginning in 1982, the faculty authorized the 
offering of optional minors by the departments. Within two years, 15 percent of 
graduating seniors were taking advantage of this means of gaining recognition 
for substantial, but less than major, study in a field. The proportion using this 
option has grown slowly through the years. Again, the foreign language 
department made efficient use of the concept to better prepare both major and 
minor concentrators for what they wished to do. All departments and schools 
moved to provide minor options, and their popularity with students suggests 
they are serving a need. 

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the University sponsored a series of 
senior transcript studies by Larry Colter (philosophy) and Roger Schnaitter 
(psychology) to ascertain the actual composition of academic experiences our 
graduates were following. Alternatives and options within the requirements 
meant that a considerable variety of programs were possible, and we wished to 
know what patterns existed. These studies enabled the faculty to know what 
was happening within the parameters it had established and to further shape 
the curriculum accordingly. The review showed that students opted for more 
foreign language than expected, they were light in mathematics and science, 
and demonstrated interest in literature, the arts, and history. 

Four major foundation grants enabled us to shape the curriculum in two 
principal directions during my tenure-in computer applications and in the 
interrelationships of liberal and professional education. In the fall of 1968, 
General Electric provided the University with a time-sharing terminal and 
direct access to their computer at the plant in Bloomington. Formal instruction 
in computer science began the following year. Late in 1970, we were awarded 


Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

a three-year College Science Improvement Program (COSIP) grant by the 
National Science Foundation. One of its components provided for multi-disci- 
plinary computer applications, which released David Braught (chemistry) half- 
time for their development. I said in reporting on the grant at the time: 
"Fewer than one in ten of the qualified colleges and universities have received 
such grants, only one of every two colleges making application last year 
received approval, and... only seven grants (were) made.... Much credit must 
go to Dr. Wendell W. Hess and other f acuity.... " The grant also funded faculty 
and student research in six science and social science departments and the 
acquisition of the new telescope for the Mark Evans Observatory as well as 
psychology testing apparatus. 

Next came the Mid-Illinois Computer Cooperative, a state sponsored group 
which gave us access to a large supercomputer, the Cyber 70. The latter con- 
nection did not work very well because of glitches in long-distance transmis- 
sion lines and access problems at the computer. However, the consortium did 
encourage cooperative arrangements with ISU, particularly for administrative 
computing, with access terminals for the registrar, admission, development, 
and business operations. 

The truly revolutionary development for computer education, as for the 
computing industry generally, was the introduction of microcomputers in the 
late 1970s. Apple II computers were first marketed in 1977, and we bought our 
first one a year later. That model and its updates became the dominant one in 
Wesleyan's academic inventory for the next dozen years. By 1984 we had 
forty-four in academic use, along with assorted other makes and models for 
specific applications, and soon there were well over a hundred. Laboratories 
were established in the science and liberal arts classroom buildings and in the 
library. Many faculty were dispatched to summer short courses to enable them 
to teach the introductory course in computing. This had two benefits; we were 
able to meet student demand for basic exposure to computing, and faculty 
were very soon exploring applications in their own fields of interest, further 
spreading the capability. By the early 1980s, more than 80 percent of our grad- 
uates had rudimentary exposure to computers. 

About the time the microcomputers were making their entrance, Wesleyan 
developed a five-course sequence in computer science. This provided a basis 
in 1981 for establishing a joint major in mathematics and computer science. By 
then we were into our second National Science Foundation grant promoting 
the development of computer education, called Comprehensive Assistance for 
Undergraduate Science Education (CAUSE). This time, David Braught was the 
project director, and the thrust of the grant was for curricular and faculty 
development in computer science, although it also provided for the acquisition 
of additional microcomputers. The final effort toward the improvement of 
computer education during my tenure was the establishment in 1985 of a dedi- 
cated line and terminal facilities to the computer laboratory at the University of 
Illinois in Urbana. This connection provided access to four different main- 
frame computers. What took place during the eighteen years was a continuous 
evolution and expansion of computer education, enabling faculty and students 

Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

with significant interest in computers to develop that interest, and equipping 
practically all students with an opportunity to become familiar with microcom- 
puters by gaining first-hand experience. 

The other major curricular development stemmed from a suggestion in the 
1973 North Central visiting team report: "If IWU could take advantage of its 
unusual combination of professional schools and liberal arts and develop a 
professional model of liberal education, it could make a distinctive contribu- 
tion to American higher education." They expanded on the concept to suggest 
content in liberal arts courses containing values and issues of interest to those 
in health care, business, education, and the fine arts. The comment probably 
originated with one of the team members, Hoke L. Smith, then academic vice 
president at Drake University and later president at Towson State University in 
Maryland, who was interested in the subject and later wrote: "We no longer 
sought to borrow from the accepted prestige models. Our goal was to be the 
Drake of the nation, not the Harvard of the Midwest." The concept also had 
been elaborated by H. Bradley Sagan of the University of Iowa, whom we had 
visit Illinois Wesleyan on one or two occasions. An opportunity for us to 
explore development of the concept in our own setting was afforded by grants 
from the Lilly Endowment and the Kellogg Foundation in 1976, the largest 
awarded to us other than for building construction during my tenure. They 
augmented our academic budgets for the three years of the projects by approx- 
imately 3 to 4 percent. 

The Lilly grant was used to develop and implement a liberal arts-profession- 
al model (or approach) to undergraduate education and the Kellogg project 
was entitled "Improving Career Opportunities for Liberal Arts College 


Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

Students/' Obviously, the two projects were closely related and complemen- 
tary. Wendell Hess directed both projects and was assisted operationally by 
Jerry Israel (history) on the first and by Kate Romani (career education) and 
Randy Farmer (graduate follow-up) on the second. While we fell short of 
establishing a distinctive model for American higher education, the work was 
highly beneficial to the University in providing incentives for curricular and 
support services innovation. 

For the lasting benefits, we must wait to see how many pieces of the mosaic 
survive until 1999, twenty years after the project's completion. An appraisal 
written at the end of the project, involving faculty other than those responsible 
for it, plus the dean of Dickinson College, was very positive. Probably a more 
sustained effort would be required to fashion a fuller marriage of liberal and 
professional education as necessary for the preparation of a "whole" person. 

The Lilly grant actually sponsored "more than thirty separate curriculum 
development projects" in a permissive approach which tried to enlist as much 
broad faculty interest as possible. To quote further from the project assessors, 
the Lilly faculty committee saw its responsibilities as: 

"Fostering relationships between academic programs and student futures; con- 
cerning itself with the process by which students' values change while at 
Wesleyan; remaining alert to the interdisciplinary nature of student futures; and 
seizing opportunities to involve non-traditional faculty and off-campus experi- 
ences in the educational program." 

Accordingly, these thirty-plus projects involved unifying (interdisciplinary) 
courses, better student development of basic skills (writing, oral, quantitative 
[including computer science], and foreign language), improvements in the 
quality of freshmen experiences, and broadening and improving the focus of 

Many of these ideas had preexisted; for example, business internships had 
been established for many years, but the concept was broadened to law and 
government and fine arts administration. Further preparation for the experi- 
ences before leaving the campus clarified their purpose. Similarly, the 
strengthening of the freshman year program had been an emphasis developed 
by the Academic Planning Committee, which had fashioned a set of freshman 
year objectives. Course development included freshmen humanities (Self and 
Society), human development, bioethics, and business ethics. Jerry Stone led 
the development of the new humanities course, a field in which he excelled as 
he did in the classroom, where his enthusiasm became so contagious at times 
that he appeared ready to lift off. 

The Kellogg project was more focused on four areas: career education, 
internships, graduate follow-up, and continuing education. It led to the Career 
Education Center in 1977 with the use of student para-professionals for out- 
reach, the expansion of internships just mentioned, a systematic follow-up 
questionnaire and information from graduates one-three-five years out of 
school, and various experiments in continuing education, including the still- 
functioning writers conference. The employment of student para-professionals 

Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

was particularly effective, and I subsequently advocated other opportunities to 
involve students in teaching and mentoring roles, in which both teacher and 
taught benefitted by enhancement of skills. 

Improvements in career advising included adding to the highly successful 
pre-medical advisory committee established in 1972. The pre-law committee 
was added in 1974, the graduate business committee in 1979, and the pre-engi- 
neering and graduate fellowship committees, both in 1982. The last committee 
was a faculty suggestion, and the validity of the concept was illustrated in a 
letter from the Harvard Law School in 1978 when we had six students from 
Illinois Wesleyan in attendance. One of their assistant directors of admission 

"It is... unusual for a school the size of Illinois Wesleyan to have that many peo- 
ple in attendance here.... Because of the relatively small number of applicants from 
your school, and the high quality of those applicants, the percentage of applicants 
admitted from Illinois Wesleyan has been between 50-75% since 1975. This is 
undoubtedly one of the highest overall percentages of any school in the 
country.... there must be some excellent prelaw advising going on at your school..." 

Bruce Criley and his colleagues on the pre-medical committee, many who 
came from a wide variety of disciplines, avoided excessive disappointment of 
students by advising those early for whom success was unlikely. They became 
widely known for their frank and collectively written letters of reference on 
which medical schools could rely. These letters contributed to our high accep- 
tance rate into medical and graduate schools. 

All colleges have their success stories, but they happened frequently enough 
at Wesleyan to confirm that the Liberal Arts College was accomplishing its mis- 
sion. For example, in 1981, three graduating seniors were accepted for graduate 
study at Harvard — one in law, one in medicine, and one in theology. The 
Pantagraph ran the story. Lee Christie had a perfect score on the Law School 
Admission Test, and ten years later he was a practicing attorney in Chicago. 
Jeff Mcintosh spoiled the triumvirate by actually going to Johns Hopkins 
Medical School, not a second choice alternative, and he became an orthopedic 
surgeon. Jeffrey Phillips, who had served as Student Senate president in 1979, 
completed Harvard's Divinity School and went to Zimbabwe as a United 
Church Chaplain. 

A program for women in management was started in the mid-1970s by Lee 
Short, our development director. It was called "Room at the Top" and involved 
three or four Bloomington-Normal firms who agreed to provide part-time man- 
agement experiences for women during the school year plus full-time summer 
employment. The carrot for the companies was the possibility of a permanent 
relationship with good management candidates since the women in the pro- 
gram were highly selected. After the Career Education Center was formed, the 
program was moved under that office, and periodic meetings were held with 
the participating students to monitor their progress and to share experiences. 

Another small grant funded by the Ford Foundation through the Association 
of American Colleges dealt with "American Agriculture in the Liberal Arts 


Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

Setting: An Interdisciplinary Approach." It was one of thirteen grants awarded 
from 157 applications and built on our regional agricultural ties in developing a 
course on agriculture. The Woodrow Wilson Foundation included us in their 
Visiting Fellows program, which brought us a one- week visit of six interesting 
people from 1981 to 1985, including the defense correspondent of the Baltimore 
Sun, an oil company research and development executive, the city manager of 
Columbia, Maryland, a federal circuit court judge, and a foreign service officer. 

The Sloan Foundation sponsored a concept called 'The New Liberal Arts" 
beginning in 1981 which related closely to and augmented what we were trying 
to accomplish under the Lilly project. It involved infusing course content with 
certain aspects of applied mathematics, technological literacy, and computer 
usage. Although we were not a part of the Sloan project, we had George Drake, 
president of Grinnell College and a historian, talk on the subject to our faculty. 
Later, under the auspices of the Stevenson Lectureship, we had Professor Elting 
Morison of MIT in a panel discussion of the subject. Collectively, these modifi- 
cations and emphases indicated the direction in the curriculum we sought to 
impart from 1968 to 1986. 

One of the more perplexing curriculum problems concerned the changing 
fortunes of teacher education programs as population growth slowed, and 
what kind of certification and accreditation to seek. Illinois Board of Education 
certification was crucial and this we obtained without problems. With some 
difficulty before I arrived, the institution had sought and eventually obtained 
accreditation from the National Council on the Accreditation of Teacher 
Education (NCATE). This presumably conferred national acceptance on the 
program, even though many states granted reciprocity to those certified by 
other states. Some of the emphases by the Illinois Board were different from 
those of the National Council. Our situation was further complicated by our 
large music programs and the fact that the National Association of Schools of 
Music (NASM) was the essential accrediting agency in music. Again, there 
were differing emphases between NCATE and NASM. 

In the 1972 NCATE review, our secondary programs were called into ques- 
tion chiefly on the basis of limited numbers in several of them. As numbers 
shrank in the 1970s, there appeared to be a turf contest between the larger col- 
leges of education and smaller liberal arts institutions engaged in teacher prepa- 
ration. We were held in "purgatory" for several years and finally approval of 
our secondary programs was withdrawn in 1975. John Clark and I accompa- 
nied our education faculty leaders to an NCATE evaluation board meeting in 
Memphis, and I appeared again with the chairman, Lucille Klauser, in 
Washington a couple of years later. We discovered that contrary to NCATE 
published procedures, our appeal was heard by several of the same members 
who had considered our case originally. When I pointed this out to the execu- 
tive director of NCATE, he agreed that we had a valid complaint, but no steps 
were taken to redress our grievance. When our next review came up in 1982, 
we did not perceive that the situation had improved, and after consultation 
inside and outside the institution, we discontinued our membership. 


Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

Specialized accreditation is of questionable value for professional programs 
unless an institution is prepared to go all the way in following prescriptive cur- 
ricular practices which may be highly intrusive in terms of the proportion of 
courses required in the students' total undergraduate program. Undoubtedly 
NCATE meant well, yet I think the historical judgment of their influence in pri- 
mary and secondary education finds them wanting. The later defection from 
NCATE by a number of major universities appears to confirm our action. This 
same judgment applies to business accreditation, which we and most liberal 
arts colleges never attempted, and also to that in home economics, which we 

The Sheean Library was occupied at the beginning of the fall term in 1968. It 
proved to be a very accessible and compatible facility for a college library. The 
organization and adequacy of the collection, however, left something to be 
desired. Clayton Highum joined us as director of libraries in 1972 and was 
quickly engaged in dealing with these problems. The following year the Media 
Center was set up in one of the unoccupied ground level quadrants under the 
enthusiastic leadership of Janet Bedford. Much wider use of non-print media 
was promoted and made readily available. The Thorpe Music Library was 
moved in the renovation of Presser Hall in 1972, and the music librarian was 
integrated into the staff as fine arts librarian. Overall organizational problems 
were successfully overcome, and a working collection for undergraduate needs 
was provided. How far it was appropriate to go in deepening the research col- 
lection and adding to the proliferating number of scholarly journals becoming 
available — we already subscribed to 1100 — was problematic. 

Fortunately, technology was becoming available to enable the smaller 
libraries to have access to the resources of the larger libraries, and Highum and 
Dean Hess determined to pursue the technology vigorously. The Kellogg 
Foundation assisted 300 colleges, including Illinois Wesleyan, in becoming 
members of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC), a computerized cata- 
loging system in 1976. Four years later, we installed a data base terminal to 
DIALOG, an extensive bibliographic reference service located in California. 
That same year the Lilly Endowment sponsored our participation in a group of 
twenty liberal arts colleges to assess library needs and management practices 
under the auspices of the Association of Research Libraries. In 1981 the Illinois 
Library and Information Network (ILLINET) Online computerized library cata- 
log was installed, including 800 libraries, providing access to 20 million items 
through the Illinois Library Computer System Organization, which now 
includes thirty-eight academic institutions in the state. Interestingly, some of 
the smaller libraries in the system, including Illinois Wesleyan, quickly became 
net lenders, justifying their importance to the consortium. By participating in 
these groups, Illinois Wesleyan faculty and students were able to be "state-of- 
the-art" users of library resources available throughout the country. 

Students are capable of malicious pranks. In the spring of 1978, several of 
them secreted themselves in the library at closing time, and piled up thousands 
of volumes on the stair landings. Several days of work were required to get 


Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

them back into their places on the shelves. It was probably fortunate that those 
responsible were never apprehended, otherwise the wrath of Solomon might 
have been visited on them. Staff members present at the time still do not see 
any humor in the act. 



"One ought, every day at least, to hear a little song, read a good poem, see a fine 
picture, and, if it were possible, to speak a few reasonable words." 

Goethe, Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, 1795 

The Fine Arts College had been in existence for twenty years when I arrived. 
It was an unusual combination of faculty and student talent for a liberal arts 
college in a small prairie city. A bachelor's degree program had been launched 
in music in 1919, and the school achieved regional prominence under the lead- 
ership of Dean Arthur E. Westbrook during the 1920s and 1930s. The Art and 
Drama Schools were early post- World War II ventures in 1946 and 1947, respec- 
tively. Given these distinctive programs in a Midwestern college setting, how 
could we capitalize on their presence to enhance the entire institution and add 
to the experience of all students passing through our doors? 

The Fine Arts College was not without its problems. The 1967 North Central 
visiting committee challenged its existence, calling it a "paper organization," an 
accusation the North Central consultant continued to echo for two years in call- 
ing for dropping the designation. I resisted this advice or its implied alterna- 
tive, placing it under a fine arts dean. The other problem was more basic and 
continuing, the search for leadership of the schools, particularly after the deaths 
of Carl Neumeyer and Rupert Kilgore following successful tenures of twenty 
and twenty-five years. The replacements did not always succeed and four 
times the searches ran into one or two additional years, necessitating temporary 
replacements. I was involved in searches for four music directors, three art 
directors, and two drama directors. In eleven of my eighteen years, we were 
looking for a director of one or more of the schools. 

The new Alice Millar Center for the Fine Arts was dedicated in 1973 on the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the creation of the College. A new art building 
replaced several old houses that had served the School since its inception, 
Presser Hall was totally renovated and a new music building added, and the 
Drama School gained an experimental theatre. Nevertheless, buildings do not 
make a college, people do. Augmented funding was provided for the Fine Arts 
Festival, a consistent effort was directed toward increased linkages between the 
Liberal and Fine Arts Colleges, a new musical theatre degree was inaugurated 
in 1977, and arts management programs were instituted in 1978. By 1982, the 
North Central visiting team was no longer attacking the existence of our Fine 
Arts College. Instead, it wrote that "The faculty in the Schools of Art, Drama, 
and Music demonstrate a vitality and tradition which surely must be a valued 

Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

heritage of Illinois Wesleyan University. Programs are sound, facilities are 
superior, and equipment and library resources are substantial.... great efforts 
have lately been made to integrate the fine (arts) and liberal arts." 

Strong programs can be a mixed blessing. They tend to sustain and enhance 
themselves because of their attraction for both students and faculty. At the 
same time they invite ossification when things are working and there is little 
reason to change. The School of Music was delicately poised between these 
antipodes for the decade 1968-78, and then, partly as a result of the lack of sus- 
tained leadership, it failed to adapt rapidly enough as enrollments in music 
education declined in the late 1970s and early 1980s. 

The Music School had many very accomplished faculty and students and we 
saw some of the clouds approaching, but we lacked the ability to bring about 
change before our student numbers tumbled distressingly. It could have been 
otherwise. We were slow in learning the need for student recruiting (as 
opposed to thinking that students were bought with financial inducements), 
liberal arts students interested in music study were not encouraged for too long, 
and methods and programs were allowed to languish rather than react to meet 
new conditions. 

The agony in terminating the master's degree program in music is illustra- 
tive. It had existed since the 1930s, but had shrunk since the late 1940s as public 
universities usurped the market with their low tuition during the summer, 
when many of the music educators enrolled. The problem was how to con- 
vince the faculty that energies should be directed away from what they viewed 
as a prestige activity. Finally, William Hipp sought help from the National 
Association of Schools of Music (NASM). They sent two music school deans 
who assessed the program in 1974 and recommended discontinuance, which 
was done the following year. 

Accreditation by the NASM in 1978 presented no problems — the enrollment 
slide began the following year. They applauded our endeavor to reestablish a 
vigorous string program, which we tried repeatedly to do without marked suc- 
cess. (This was subsequently accomplished). The band programs were improv- 
ing under the leadership of Thomas Streeter (jazz-low brass) and Steven 
Eggleston (wind ensemble-high brass). We were strongest in vocal music, 
where our long-serving faculty were Henry Charles, David Nott, Robert 
Donalson, and Sammy Scifres. They produced more than half a dozen opera 
singers during my years — Roger Roloff '69, Z. Edmund Toliver '70, Susan 
Quittmeyer '75, Karen Huffstodt '77, Brenda Hemann Harris '79, Andrea Huber 
'81, and Dawn Upshaw '82 — as well as many able music educators. 

Roger Roloff was not a music major at Wesleyan, although he was a member 
of the Collegiate Choir and studied voice with David Nott. When the School of 
Music announced the staging of "Carmen" in the spring of 1969, 1 was con- 
cerned whether or not it had the voices for such a well-known opera. No need 
to worry, two of the cast are now professional singers, and two more teach at 
the college or university level. Roloff carried off the role of Escamillo, the tore- 
ador, in amazing voice, as did Ed Toliver in the role of Zuniga. For six years 


Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

after leaving Wesleyan, 
Roloff continued graduate 
study in his major field, 
English, before turning to his 
secondary interest in opera. 
Since then he has sung with 
opera companies and orches- 
tras from Seattle to Berlin and 
won acclaim for his 
Wagnerian roles. 

Karen Huffstodt attracted 
our attention with her bold 
soprano obbligatos while 
singing with the jazz choir, 
the Wesleyan Singers. The 
next time I learned of her 
activities was the Washington 
Post announcement that she 
would be singing opposite 
Placido Domingo in the 
world premiere of the opera 
"Goya" by Gian Carlo 
Menotti at the Kennedy 
Center. Queen Sofia of Spain 
was in attendance. 

Dawn Upshaw first caught 
my attention at a President's 
Convocation appearance. 
Her senior honor recital 
included Bach, Poulenc, 
Strauss, and an American 
premiere of a Geoffrey Bush song cycle. The potential was apparent. Two 
years later she was in the Metropolitan Opera's young artists development pro- 
gram, and the following year she won the Naumberg Vocal Award. That year 
also marked her appearance in a major role in "The Marriage of Figaro" at the 
Salzburg Festival. Dozens of roles at the Met have followed, and she also has 
become a recording star with two Grammy Awards for Best Classical Solo 
Vocal Performance. 

Our keyboard instruction was always strong with Dwight Drexler, who 
served the last eleven of his impressive forty-five years during my time, Larry 
Campbell, David Gehrenbeck, and Bedford Watkins. Gehrenbeck and his stu- 
dents performed the entire canon of Bach organ works to celebrate the tercente- 
nary of his birth — the feat stretched over a decade and involved forty-three per- 
formers. With the assistance of the Lilly grant, we developed a program in 
piano pedagogy. 

Kathleen Battle singing Haydn's "Nelson Mass' 
with IWU choirs 1974; she returned in 1975 for 
Bach's "Mass in B Minor" 


Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

Dwight Drexler was clearly in command of the piano and musical interpreta- 
tion, whether playing Beethoven, Chopin, or Schumann. He accompanied 
Lauritz Melchior, among others, at a Bloomington concert, and performed 
before composers Aaron Copeland and Ernst Krenek in the annual Symposium 
of Contemporary Music. Twice he was called on to serve as interim director 
during the 1970s while we repeatedly sought to reestablish the School's leader- 
ship. Always as honest in conversation as in music, Drexler's retirement at the 
end of his long tenure left an irreplaceable hole — the end of an era stretching 
back into the 1930s. 

For one who loves music and musicians, I found it especially painful to leave 
the Music School in the predicament it was undergoing. I took solace in the 
appointment of Robert Kvam as director, combining a solid background in 
choral music with leadership experience in a liberal arts college, and in his 
potential for solving problems. Todd Tucker already had placed the theory 
program in an improved posture, and the many talented students and faculty 
bode well for its recovery. 

Enrollment problems had appeared in the School of Art earlier in the 1970s, 
but the art faculty had responded more quickly to the possibility of serving the 
liberal arts students with both studio and art history courses. We were fortu- 
nate in the appointment of a gifted art historian, Timothy Garvey, in 1980 with 
an understanding of studio work. Photography and graphic design were 
upgraded as parts of the studio program in addition to the more traditional 
fields. Fred Brian, printmaker and painter for thirty-two years, provided conti- 
nuity in the School after Kilgore's death; Miles Bair, an imaginative painter, 
became director in 1979. Ann Taulbee replaced Brian in 1984, bringing fresh 
approaches to the School. 

The School of Drama was organized during the 1967-77 decade as a produc- 
tion company. This had its advantages and disadvantages. Those frequently 
cast in principal roles readily became a part of its esprit de corps, those who 
were not felt left out. The problem was that as an educational institution, we 
had an obligation to every student, and the academic emphasis had to be para- 
mount. The balancing of these competing objectives was not easy — to prepare 
for roles in the professional theatre, rigorous performance experience is neces- 
sary; to offer baccalaureate degrees in drama, solid academic preparation is the 
sine qua non. For more than thirty-five years, John Ficca constituted a com- 
manding presence in the School, in and out of the role as school director. He 
exercised an important influence on the building of the present house, 
McPherson Theatre, and as an acting teacher, director, and playwright. Carole 
Brandt, who served as school director for five years, was an inspiring leader, as 
her successes and students testify, and as indicated by her subsequent appoint- 
ments as chairperson in theatre at the University of Florida and Pennsylvania 

One of her contributions to Illinois Wesleyan was to involve the University 
in the American College Theatre Festival (ACTF). In 1981, one of our students, 
Andrea Huber, was one of two students chosen nationally for the Irene Ryan 
Acting Scholarship at the Kennedy Center in Washington, where she acted in -. , 

Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

an excerpt from Chekhov and performed a song from "Die Fledermaus." 
Subsequently, she became an opera singer in Germany. 

An IWU production of "Working" was chosen to open the Kennedy Center 
ACTF presentation in 1984 with three performances. It required a large cast, 
some drawn from the Liberal Arts College. More than half of our Drama 
School students made the trip. The Washington Post reviewer wrote: 

"Among the large cast, a few of the performers appear genuinely talented, a lot 
more look awkward, but all of them are eager and earnest, which is the first 
requirement for the job. ...The production has been soberly staged by Jason C. 
Dunn. ...To its credit, the show doesn't try to be flashy — just honest. Give it 
points for that." 

The Drama School was enhanced by the establishment of the E. Melba 
Johnson Kirkpatrick Theatre Artists Series, which brought Helen Hayes, Uta 
Hagen, Josh Logan, Edward Villella, John Housman and others to Wesleyan for 
work with students. John Clark, who had gone to grade school with Uta 
Hagen, playfully used that hidden connection in introducing her to an after- 
dinner audience. 

In 1972, we combined part-time dance positions in drama and physical edu- 
cation to create a full-time movement position housed in the School of Drama. 
This became an integral part of the Music Theatre degree program launched by 
the Schools of Drama and Music in 1977. We probably made inadequate prepa- 
ration for the new program. Each School insisted on most of its own require- 
ments, squeezing the students initially. We had it reviewed by outside consul- 
tants in 1978 and again in 1982. At that time, Jason Dunn was placed in charge. 


Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

The curriculum was simplified, and it became one of our most attractive offer- 
ings in the Fine Arts College. 


"I am all for the nurses. If they are to continue their professional feud with the 
doctors, if they want their professional status enhanced..., if they infuriate the doc- 
tors by their claims to be equal professionals,... I am on their side." 

Lewis Thomas, The Youngest Science, 1983 
Former President, Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 

Nursing is an evolving profession. The establishment of the bachelor of sci- 
ence in nursing (BSN) degree program at Wesley an in 1959 was one of the early 
baccalaureate programs. It followed thirty-five years of collaboration by the 
University in offering a joint program with the Brokaw Hospital diploma 
school. The difference was the assumption of all responsibility for clinical 
teaching by the University's own faculty. One of our alumnae, Mary Shanks, 
became director of the School in 1960 and served for sixteen years. She was one 
of the early nurse educators who had a doctorate, was the author of a book in 
her field, and held the rank of captain in the U.S. Navy Reserve. The program 
succeeded early not only because it was done well, which it was, but because it 
offered the opportunity for nursing students to participate fully in college life as 
opposed to the programs at many major universities, where the nursing school 
was the lowest rung on the ladder in a medical school complex. 

Mary Shanks ran a tight ship, which occasionally interfered with her many 
fine qualities. After I had been president a few months, she chastised me charg- 
ing that I had provided no response in writing to her eight memoranda to me. I 
replied that I did not think it was necessary to plaster our small campus with 
paper, that I was accustomed to making important internal decisions orally. 
Many of her requests appeared excessive through the years relative to the dire 
needs elsewhere, especially in the Liberal Arts College. 

The accrediting agency for nursing education was the National League for 
Nursing (NLN), which had approved our program for the maximum term of 
eight years in 1963, just before the first class was graduated. This meant they 
visited again in 1971 and 1979. Not to be outdone by other agencies, they 
required as much preparation for the School as the North Central Association 
did for the entire University. As nursing sought its own identity, they pushed 
nursing schools to shift from the medical school model to one derived concep- 
tually for nursing. Our faculty chose the "Orem self-care deficit" framework for 
its curricular design. This meant shifting from the traditional medical-surgical, 
maternal and child, psychiatric, and community health nursing to courses 
recast along health deviations lines. It necessitated a revisit by the NLN in 1983 
to make sure we had it right. Fortunately, we did. 


Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

Through most of the 1970s nurses were in short supply, turnover in faculty 
was high, but the situation gradually changed as other baccalaureate and com- 
munity college programs multiplied. Three-year hospital diploma programs 
thinned out, but did not end as abruptly as predicted by the American Nurses 
Association. As competition quickened, we sought to improve our position and 
service to the area by offering a registered nurse degree completion program in 
1980. This was further augmented by drawing an agreement in 1986 with the 
Methodist Medical Center of Illinois in Peoria to enable nurses in their diploma 
program to change to our baccalaureate program without loss of time or credit 
toward completion in four years. Another venture designed to broaden student 
options was a school nurse certification program initiated in 1983. None of 
these involved large numbers of students, but they added dimensions to our 
School and helped counteract diminishing applicants in the 1980s. 

By then, women had many more professional options in addition to nursing 
and teaching — in medicine, law, and business, to name a few. Sporadically, 
through the 1970s, the nursing faculty had offered a health course for students 
across the University in the January term. In 1984-85, this was developed into a 
four-course offering, and several years later it was expanded further and made 
into a minor concentration. 

The Nursing School was always an excellent program with a dedicated facul- 
ty and a strong sense of its mission. Competent directors were hard to find. 
We were fortunate to appoint Alma Woolley, a director of rare ability and 
unquestioned integrity, who moved the faculty into the new Orem curriculum 
and the doctoral requirement and then moved herself to become the Dean at 
Georgetown University after almost five years at Wesleyan. Connie Dennis, 
one of the School's alumnae and a faculty member, was the first to complete her 
doctorate after they were expected before tenure for new faculty. Donna 
Hartweg, who became a faculty member in 1978, also later acquired a doctor- 
ate. She was both fully dedicated and obviously able and was appointed as 
director a decade later. 


"Nobody has ever figured out just why we thought everything could be learned in 
four years. It just seemed a good even number I guess and we used it." 

Will Rogers 

Lloyd Bertholf led the faculty into the January term calendar arrangement in 

1965-66. The practice was still in its early stages when I arrived, the fall and 

spring semesters were of uneven length, and the concept was rapidly being 

adopted particularly among colleges with less than 2500 students. It was and 

has remained very popular with students; the principal difficulties appeared to 

reside in mathematics, where slower absorption works better, and in music 

with the interruption of studio and ensemble routines. It was readily adaptable 

Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

to travel courses, both foreign and domestic, innovative subjects and internship 
experiences, and the foreign language faculty learned to benefit from its " total 
immersion' 7 opportunity. We quickly evened out the fall and spring terms and 
avoided the fiscal pitfalls of many institutions by making it obligatory along 
with the fall term, rather than optional. 

Faculty leadership thought more could be made of the January experience on 
campus by the intensive study of a theme that might engage larger numbers of 
students. The following January term themes and numbers indicate the extent 
of faculty efforts: 

1976 The Bicentennial, 14 courses, 473 students 

1977 World Hunger, 87 students 

1978 Living with Technology, 6 courses, 99 students 

1979 Human Rights, 11 courses, 203 students 

1980 Bloomington-Normal: A Regional City in Focus, 
8 courses, 200 students 

1984 Orwell 1984, 17 courses, 400+ students 

In the more expansive years, featured speakers were combined with other 
events, such as the production of Thornton Wilder' s "Our Town" with commu- 
nity participation in 1980. Not everyone could afford to be off-campus, and 
these thematic Januarys increased the excitement for those in Bloomington. It 
appeared that during the four years about half of the students were having at 
least one off-campus study experience. As colleges lost enthusiasm for the 
January term — there were only slightly more than 200 using the arrangement in 
the mid-1980s — the Wesleyan term remained an attractive and distinctive fea- 
ture of its academic experience. 

One of the hopeful ventures of the late Bertholf years which ended in disap- 
pointment but not despair was the Central States College Association (CSCA), 
established in 1965. Twelve church-related colleges were included — in five 
Midwestern states, four in our athletic conference, and with five different reli- 
gious traditions represented. The early promise was high for student, faculty, 
and visiting scholar exchanges and for academic projects. 

After the initial excitement of early efforts, not enough solid participation 
was found in student exchange and in two projects, one in philosophy instruc- 
tion in Chicago high schools and the other in shared institutional research. I 
attended more than a dozen, mostly two-day meetings of the presidents and 
deans, from 1968 to 1972, when the program's active phase ended. Those of us 
who wanted to spend a little money and get on with additional joint ventures 
were just about offset by others who wanted to hold back and proceed cau- 
tiously — mostly to talk endlessly about whether the deans should participate 
(they usually did) in our deliberations and equally trivial matters. In the words 
of Frank Gamelin, our last executive director, several of the institutional leaders 
lacked confidence in where we should be going as colleges, and in what should 
be the focus and essential mission of colleges of our type and size. 


Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

Not all was lost, however. The effort had its positive side. The student 
exchanges went on for another five years. By then we had gained access for our 
students to most of the programs of the Associated Colleges of the Midwest 
(ACM), a group of thirteen colleges, and shortly to some of those of the Great 
Lakes College Association (GLCA), a group of twelve colleges, including 
opportunities for arts management internships. The experience also encour- 
aged us to seek affiliations with a variety of institutions of greatest benefit to 
students — for example, foreign language internships in Germany through the 
University of Cincinnati, engineering program linkages with Case- Western 
Reserve, Illinois, Northwestern, and Washington University. It also reminded 
us that we must rely on ourselves if we were to achieve success, that our own 
efforts rather than those of an association or consortium were more crucial to 
our salvation. 

Another unique aspect of the Wesleyan program was what went on during 
the summer — the third of the year when our primary programs were off sea- 
son. The master in science teaching degree, funded by the federal government 
after Sputnik, was winding down as I arrived after an eleven-summer run. So 
was the master's program in music, as mentioned earlier. In 1964, prior to my 
arrival, the Dean of Students office had started running a series of summer ori- 
entation sessions for new students. We improved these and infused them with 
more academic content, including academic advising and actual registration for 
fall classes. Soon after becoming registrar in 1968, James Barbour devised full 
registration in the spring for continuing students and during summer orienta- 
tion for new students, eliminating the long lines that had been traditional for 
that task. Administrative staff and representative faculty met with students 
each summer and we encouraged parent participation. Our thinking was that a 
good beginning helped insure later academic success. We soon had more than 
80 percent of entering students attending in the summer with an average of one 
and one-half parents. All received an extensive exposure to the faculty, staff, 
and campus, including a theatre production. Judging by the number of other 
institutions who sent representatives to observe, we soon gained a reputation 
for improving the transition to college. The objective was to present the institu- 
tion as truly as possible, to minimize shocks and surprises, and to communicate 
the academic priorities along with the realities of health, security, and residence 
hall life. 

Second, we sought to employ our summer resources insofar as possible in 
offering adjuncts to our academic programs. Several imaginative alumni semi- 
nars were operated beginning in 1974 and discontinued after failure to generate 
enough interest three years later. People do not think Central Illinois is an ideal 
place to spend a week in the summer! Summer directed study evolved from 
independent study to eliminate some obvious excesses, and the foreign lan- 
guage trailers were instituted. Summer theatre continued in an increasingly 
competitive environment, owing largely to the continuing interest of John Ficca. 
The College Credit in Escrow program of college credit for able high school stu- 
dents between their junior and senior years, started in 1963 by an innovative 
Lee Short, reached a high point of five classes and 93 students in 1977, then 

Chapter 4 Academic Programs: Curriculum 

waned and was eventually discontinued as too many colleges got into the act. 
One successful venture was initiated by Bettie Story, children's writer and edi- 
tor of Central Illinois Conference (United Methodist) publications, in 1977. Her 
week-long writers' conferences, now in the sixteenth year, have brought an 
interesting group of writers and aspiring scribes to the campus. 

It was clear to us early that we probably did not have the potential to fill up 
much of the summer with academic endeavors because of the low-cost pro- 
grams marketed by Illinois State University and other competitive institutions. 
Very early, we sought to attract as many users of facilities as possible and the 
closer the connection with the University, the better. Specifically, the more we 
could expose the campus's attractiveness to people who might refer students to 
the University, the more we would be helped. In addition, we could generate 
enough revenue to employ a couple of additional faculty during the year. 

Repeat visitors included church women, United Methodist ministers, tax 
assessors, trial lawyers (who caused comments about their expensive and exotic 
automobiles), and cheerleaders and pep squad aspirants of every description, 
who enlivened the campus from early until late running through their routines 
with unbounded energy. The staff found it easier to satisfy church women of 
other denominations than our own, who often expected more amenities than 
we had available. We brought the music camps back to the campus, again in 
order to let them see and use our excellent facilities first hand. It was surprising 
to ask new students how they first learned of Illinois Wesleyan and to hear 
them reply that they had attended a cheerleader or music camp here or that an 
aunt attended a Lutheran women's conference at Wesleyan. 

Curricular directions described in this chapter, faculty upgrading and devel- 
opment, and improvements in student services were all designed to enhance 
the comparative advantages of Illinois Wesleyan — the four distinguishing char- 
acteristics of what it did well in higher education. They were: (1) the combina- 
tion of quality liberal arts learning and professional studies, unabashedly 
offered together, (2) an unusual emphasis in the fine arts schools offered in 
close collaboration with the liberal arts, (3) the maintenance of the Methodist 
relationship and a concern for values in an open and ecumenical setting, and (4) 
the recognition that student success is our measure, that services to enhance the 
learning environment — in advising, counseling, and living arrangements are 
important to the personal lives and well-being of students. We could perfect 
these attributes only if we could attract the physical and financial resources, the 
volunteer support required for their realization. That is the story of the next 
three chapters. 


Chapter 5 The Campus 

Chapter 5 

The Campus: Wesleyan's "Academical Village 

"The American university is a world in itself, a temporary paradise, 
a gracious stage of life...." 

Le Corbusier, WJwn the Cathedrals Were White, 1937 




espite competing architectural concepts, Thomas 
Jefferson's design of an "academical village" for the University of Virginia 
became the prevailing prototype for the American campus. On the occasion of 
the 1976 bicentennial, the American Institute of Architects voted Jefferson's aca- 
demical village "the proudest achievement of American architecture in 200 

The typical American campus described by Paul Turner in Campus: An 
American Planning Tradition (1984) exhibits two characteristics. The first was 
"individual colleges in separate locations" as opposed to clusters of colleges in 
universities like Oxford and Cambridge. The founding fathers had repeatedly 
proposed the establishment of a national university, but it never came into exis- 
tence, the Congress had other priorities. Universities were created in America in 
the late nineteenth century, and there continued to be many freestanding liberal 
arts colleges like Illinois Wesley an scattered throughout the hinterland. The sec- 
ond characteristic was no less unique. Spatially, colleges were open and expan- 
sive, unlike the cloistered and enclosed quadrangles found among European insti- 
tutions. Jefferson had written of his proposed village in 1819, "It forms... a regu- 
lar town, capable of being enlarged to any extent which future circumstances may 
call for." That was becoming the pattern for America's emerging educational 
institutions, and it remained so. 

Illinois Wesleyan had the prairie and not much else — no hills nor trees after 
the locusts and the elms were gone, no meandering stream. There is the con- 
crete-lined drainage ditch that is a branch of Sugar Creek, dipping down from 
the north almost missing the campus. The original ten-acre site was skimpy in 
size for an American college. By the time we arrived in 1968, its size had been 
tripled to accommodate institutional expansion, house by house, lot by lot. In 
comparison to the other sites considered historically — the west side co-opted by 

Chapter 5 The Campus 

the railroad or Miller Park — the location proved to be a good one. 

The Quadrangle existed, bisected by University street and intruded upon by 
vehicular traffic along East street. By then Old North was a memory, and mean- 
ingless sidewalks led to a Main Hall that no longer existed. Weeds were every- 
where as if the University did not care about itself. Most of the Quadrangle 
building sites were occupied, except to the east. Fortunately, in that direction 
there was an opportunity for an architectural focal point. 

In 1968, the seventeen principal buildings were solid and well crafted, but 
architectural distinction was lacking. The three buildings erected during the 
1920s — Buck Memorial Library, Memorial Gymnasium, and Presser Hall — fol- 
lowed different Gothic or classical mentors. Aside from the two glass and steel 
architectural aberrations of Holmes and Sherff Halls, the post- World War II 
structures had maintained greater consistency. Three contained elements of 
Georgian design, and the others were clearly of modern origin. Fourteen of 
the seventeen structures utilized external red brick construction and exhibited 
some familial characteristics. 

In the two decades after 1968, five large buildings were added and the cam- 
pus was almost doubled in size. Still a relatively compact campus with its struc- 
tures concentrated on and around the Quadrangle, appearances had changed. 
The Quadrangle had been integrated and landscaped. Although a campus does 
not make a university, first impressions are sometimes the only impressions, 
and they can encourage further interest in more important qualities. Two beau- 
tification awards had been made by the city, one for the Quadrangle landscap- 
ing in 1978 and one for Evelyn Chapel in 1986. The University was presentable, 
and its inhabitants were proud of it. 


''The great central heartland of our country presents. ..a seemingly endless 
expanse of flat to gently undulating land beneath a great dome of sky... 

"There is a certain monotony about it, but when one stands on that flat surface 
with the sky arching all around — with a glorious, unimpeded view of sunsets and 
stars — one feels directly in touch with the great natural forces of the world." 

Nelva M. Weber, How to Plan Your Own Home Landscape, 1976 

As I studied the campus for possibilities, it gradually became evident to me 
that the most redeeming and rewarding feature was what the Hedding Hall 
fire (1943) left in its eventual wake, space — a stretch of prairie that could be 
beautified with trees and shrubs and grassy intervals. Not a steppe, pampas, 
moor or heath — the Quadrangle was a Midwestern prairie surrounded by the 
principal buildings of the campus. And we still had that last opening to the east, 
which the chairman of my search committee had pointed to from the deck of 
the Student Center and said, 'That's where the chapel goes/ 7 


Chapter 5 The Campus 

There was much to do before the Quadrangle could be fully achieved. 
University and East streets had to be closed, the South campus or Fine Arts 
Center was yet to be realized, and there were still a few pieces of important real 
estate to acquire, without the right of eminent domain. The first step I made in 
this direction was extremely modest, wholly inappropriate, and clandestine. As 
the new Library approached completion in the early spring of 1968, 1 learned 
that the small area behind and to the north of it — the view from the lounge 
within — was to be blacktopped and made into an expanded parking area. I 
called Phil Kasch, the business manager, and suggested that he might stall 
the blacktopping until I arrived, after which we would forget about it altogeth- 
er. He willingly became my accomplice. Until this day, I have not confessed 
to Lloyd Bertholf that I willingly invaded his authority (he might even have 
agreed to do it himself, had I been bold enough to suggest it to him). At any 
rate, that is how we preserved one little additional green area in the 
Quadrangle compound. 

Because of fiscal restraints, beautification started with what was "quick and 
cheap." We got rid of the weeds, replaced the broken bench at the Main 
Gate (nobody professed to have noticed it), and reattached the dangling shutter 
hanging precariously beside a second-floor window of Pfeiffer Hall. I appoint- 
ed a beautification committee of faculty, staff, and students, which helped with 
a number of ideas in the formulating period before deciding on larger 
plans. Eventually the "British flag" pattern of sidewalk design gave way to the 
sweeping ovals suggested by alumna Nelva Weber on her first visit on 
Quadrangle layout in 1971. That year we also employed a trained horticultural- 
ist as grounds foreman, a practice we continued through the remainder of my term. 

Nelva Weber on the Quadrangle 1973 


Chapter 5 The Campus 

Nelva Weber had been an English major at Wesleyan and valedictorian of 
her class in 1931. She went on to the University of Illinois to study landscape 
architecture, although Wesleyan President Davidson advised her that it was not 
an appropriate field for a young woman. She became a highly successful land- 
scape designer in the New York area and had done earlier work for Illinois 
Wesleyan in the late 1940s around the Student Center, Pfieffer, and Magill 
Halls, including the Patio area. Several fellow alumnae were instrumental in 
sponsoring her work on the Quadrangle in 1971, including one who con- 
tributed funds for her retention. The IWU League also became interested in 
campus beautification and provided funds for a Kilgore plan to improve the 
Holmes- Shaw Hall corner in 1970. Faculty interest had fostered the red bud 
trees in front of the Library and their contributions led to the Bertholf Garden 
north of the Student Center. Also in 1974, memorial funds for Adlai Rust were 
directed by the family to be used for Quadrangle plantings. Aside from spo- 
radic efforts, not much landscaping had been done around the University in the 
1950s and 1960s, and we were sorely in need of it. 

On her initial visit in 1971, Nelva Weber came early enough to observe stu- 
dent pedestrian traffic on the campus. This led to her oval sidewalk layout and 
her emphatic position that the closing of University street was essential to the 
development of the Quadrangle. Before she returned in the summer of 1972, we 
approached the Bloomington City Council with our petition for the vacation of 
the block of University street between East and Park streets. We had first to 
negotiate with the local bureaucracy, the McLean County Regional Planning 
Commission, and the Bloomington Planning and Zoning Commission. After 
two meetings in which the Council considered our petition, the request was 
denied because of a 75 percent requirement for affirmative votes of the 
Council's five members, which we could not muster with one member opposed 
and one not voting to avoid the appearance of conflict of interest inasmuch as 
he was a partner in the same law firm as the University counsel. I had experi- 
ence in lobbying and testifying before Congressional and state legislative 
groups, but I was not prepared for the frustration of dealing with local political 
representatives. We tried again eight months later, and after the petition was 
discussed and voted on in three more meetings, the petition was again denied. 

During the Council proceedings, a retired minister living a couple of blocks 
east along University street objected to the proposed closing because it would 
complicate directing out-of-town visitors to his home. He was able to say, "Go 
north on Main Street until you come to the University gates, turn right and pro- 
ceed through the University to my house," and he could not do that if the street 
were closed. Another complained that students walked in front of cars on the 
Illinois State University campus, forcing them to stop. We were stymied by 

By this time the frustration level was reaching new highs because we were 
not making an unreasonable request. The street was seldom used except by 
University personnel, and we were proposing improvements to the University 
with obvious benefits to the neighborhood and the City. We seemed to be the 

Chapter 5 The Campus 

victim of elaborate and arcane efforts to obfuscate the University's attempt to 
upgrade itself at no cost to the City. 

However, I had also learned in my years of dealing with bureaucratic organi- 
zations that persistence is often rewarded. During the summer of 1973, we 
thought that the time might be propitious for another approach to the City 
Council — the sixth time the subject had been on their agenda. This time we took 
nothing for granted. Petitions favoring the closing were circulated and present- 
ed, and with the help of Nell and the IWU League, we recruited a list of nine 
speakers in favor of the closing along with a group of 150 people — the 
largest number that had attended a Council meeting up to that time. Marcia 
Heyboer, president of the IWU League, made an effective statement; seven 
trustees were present among several other prominent individuals in the com- 
munity. My own presentation was in some detail, accompanied by a map and 
site plans. The authorization for the closing passed on August 27, but accom- 
plishment of the work was delayed again. Because of a teamsters' strike, work 
on the Quadrangle landscaping did not begin until the summer of 1974. 

Nelva Weber and her husband, Joseph Sammataro, a retired architect who 
had been associated with Edward Durrell Stone, visited the University on six- 
teen occasions from 1971 through 1986 and did a prodigious amount of work in 
suggesting improvements in campus landscaping. Specific plans for twenty- 
seven areas of the University were made during the decade of the 1970s. They 
always stayed with us, and we visited them on a number of occasions in New 
York City and at their summer place in Litchfield, Connecticut. Nelva had 
a particular interest in working for her alma mater, and the repeat visits made it 
possible for her to review how the trees and plantings were progressing in 

Quadrangle landscaping 1974 

.^^..r *J*Z 


Chapter 5 The Campus 

addition to training successive grounds foremen at the University. She had pre- 
viously worked on the campus at Bard College and also at Purnell School; her 
husband had designed a building for the American University in Beirut 
and served as her able assistant at Illinois Wesleyan. 

Landscaping suggested by Nelva Weber involved the planting of 600 trees 
and 500 shrubs by 1975. Trees included many native Illinois varieties to avoid 
the loss of a large number at one time like the elm devastation in 1958, which 
left the campus denuded for more than a decade. Specie included red oak, 
ash, maple, sweet gum, tulip, mountain ash, cherry, crab, buckeye, Austrian, 
Scotch, and white pine, Douglas fir, and white fir — seventy different deciduous 
specie and thirteen conifers in all. 

The closing of East street between University and Beecher was much easier, 
despite the fact that it carried substantially more traffic. Shortly after closing 
University street, the city traffic engineer wanted to remove the stop signs at 
East and University and smooth the S-curve to speed traffic. We were able to 
block that proposal by citing the obvious safety hazard it posed to thousands of 
students crossing daily from the Student Center. In 1979, Mennonite Hospital 
desired the closing of East street in conjunction with an expansion project and 
invited us to join them in approaching the City. This time the action was accom- 
plished with little objection. Nelva Weber arrived two weeks later to plan the 
landscaping. When the second award was made by the Citizens Beautification 
Committee in 1986, it stated: 'The Committee has been extremely aware of 
IWU's efforts and its sensitivity in improving its campus and the city's land- 
scaping for more than a decade." Vindication delayed is still appreciated. 

Campus expansion from less than 34 acres to more than 58 acres occurred as 
mentioned earlier: house by house and lot by lot, for the most part. Nothing 
could surpass the street closings and integration of the Quadrangle in impact, 
but we did acquire two larger parcels — the Funk plant just north of Division 
street in Normal and the Franklin School — both in 1972. The Funk plant had 
once been a canning factory and had a dozen buildings that had to be removed. 
It became an auxiliary athletic field, providing another baseball diamond and 
soccer field. The Franklin School purchase in May at public auction came at an 
appropriate time. We were able to move the School of Music into it while 
Presser Hall was being renovated in 1972. House acquisition took place at a rate 
of several each year. The most active period of purchase occurred in the infla- 
tionary 1978-1983 environment, when we were helped by our liquidity and 
ability to make cash purchases from people desirous of realizing inflated real 
estate prices in a period of credit stringency. 

The campus perimeter was gradually expanded a block to the east, a block to 
the south, and two blocks to the north — most of the area from Main to McLean 
(Horenberger Drive or where McLean would run) and from Empire to Division 
streets. More than eighty houses were acquired during my eighteen years, and 
as many were demolished. A trustee committee in 1969-70 established a policy 
for dealing with these properties. If we had no use for the structures and they 
could not be rented economically, the committee recommended removal. This 


Chapter 5 The Campus 

did much to upgrade the neighborhood, which had started to deteriorate. The 
practice was to obtain an appraisal and to offer approximately that amount to 
the seller. The last of the Quadrangle block was obtained from the Sigma Kappa 
sorority in 1979, when they moved into their new house at Graham and East 
streets, and the house was renamed in honor of William T. Beadles and rented 
to the members of the Sigma Pi fraternity. University-owned land was provided 
to the Theta Chi fraternity for their house on Beecher street in 1981 and to the 
Phi Gamma Delta fraternity in 1982. This enabled nine of the twelve Greek 
houses to be on the campus, five on University-owned land. 

In order to carefully plan for the sites of future buildings, we retained the 
services of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill in 1981 to develop a master plan for 
the campus. We had benefitted from earlier site planning which opened the 
Quadrangle and gave the Sheean Library the prominent north side position it 
occupies. The immediate questions were the location of the chapel and swim- 
ming pool, which were included in the Alumni Campaign for Endowment 
(1981-85). A need for a new science facility and athletic center were scheduled 
for the 1990s. The study confirmed the chapel location, which many including 
the Sammataros had suggested, and the Fort Natatorium site, which anchored 
the adjoining future athletic center location in the block south of Wilder field. It 
also identified three possible locations for the science building and the siting 
of tennis courts and additional parking. 

Dr. William E. Shaw returned from an extended visit to China shortly before 
becoming president of Illinois Wesley an in 1939. Soon after, he planted a 
Chinese ginkgo tree in front of the president's house. It grew and flourished — it 
was there when I came and when I left. Because of its age and size, it attracted 
the admiration of a visiting arboriculturist from the University of Illinois more 
than forty years later. The last tree in the locust grove, planted by Franklin 
Phoenix on the ten-acre site that became the campus, died in 1948. More than a 
hundred stately elms fell to Dutch elm disease as it crept through Illinois in 
the late 1950s. We planted again in variety and abundance, as each succeeding 
generation may do as it comes and goes from this place of learning. 



"...The American pattern of separate buildings in open space." 

Paul Venable Turner, Campus: An American Planning Tradition, 2984 

Architects have always taken a special interest in churches, colleges and uni- 
versities. The incomparable Christopher Wren left his mark on both Oxford 
and Cambridge with only a limited number of buildings, and influenced the 
architecture of the second American college, William and Mary, where Thomas 
Jefferson obtained his formal education. Elements of "his (Wren's) Baroque 
preference," according to Turner included "openness, directional spaces, vistas 
and focal points, and hierarchical organization," ultimately prevailed at 

Chapter 5 The Campus 

American campuses. Colleges and universities in this country tried and rejected 
or outgrew the construction of large central buildings, and also their adherence 
to Gothic, classical, and Georgian architecture. Each of these styles was repre- 
sented at Illinois Wesleyan — Old Main or Hedding (central building, 1870- 
1943), Buck Library and Presser Hall (Gothic), Memorial Gymnasium (classical), 
and Stevenson, the Student Center, Pfeiffer and Magill Halls (Georgian). 

The vast majority of construction on campuses since World War II was done 
in modern styles. Frank Lloyd Wright designed the entire campus at Florida 
Southern College, a rare privilege for an individual architect. Walter Gropius 
and Marcel Breuer along with others insisted on International Style and 
modern functionalism, which carried the day in the volume of construction. 
However, another trend would ultimately appear. Eero Saarinen's college work 
began to reflect neo-traditionalist or post-modern tendencies at Concordia 
College (Indiana) and in the designs for new colleges at Yale in the 1950s and 
1960s. By the 1980s, this style became more pronounced. Curiously again, 
Illinois Wesleyan's post-World War II construction exhibits these trends. Of the 
University's twenty-two principal buildings in 1988 (after the completion 
of Fort Natatorium), the score read: five Georgian, two Gothic, one classical, 
and fourteen modern. 

This result was remarkable considering the fact that local architects had done 
all of the design work on buildings for the University prior to the Chapel. 
Evans Associates had designed all of the post-1945 buildings and had been 
retained for the Fine Arts Center and Dodds residence hall before I arrived. 
The Sheean Library design worked very well, although we had serious leakage 
problems around the concrete side slabs until an effective fix was found. 

The Dodds Hall design was attractive with capacity for 153 students in three 
segments, arranged in suites for eight students around a lounge for each unit. 
Construction delays of two kinds were encountered. Loess soil laid down by 
wind or glacier action proved inadequate to support the building and pilings 
had to be driven into the sub-soil. In addition, a strike of construction workers 
postponed completion. The contractor requested additional payments because 
of the delays. I held to the bid price — the question was moot, and we remained 
friends. The delays necessitated the use of fourteen old houses to accommodate 
students destined for the hall in the fall term. Regrettably, the details of heating 
controls, door locks, ventilators in doors, exit lights, and similar accoutrements 
were inadequately considered. Poor working of these features invited vandal- 
ism almost immediately. Nell and I went through the entire building in 1975-76 
with the business manager and physical plant director to assess the problems 
and attempt to devise solutions. 

As mentioned in Chapter 4, the Alice Millar Center for the Fine Arts 
involved a new music building adjoining Presser Hall to the south with court- 
yards between, the complete renovation of Presser Hall, and a building to 
house the School of Art. McPherson Theatre had been completed for ten years, 
but a '"black box" experimental theatre was included in the new music building 
adjacent to McPherson. Conceptual drawings were already complete when I 
arrived, and much of the technical input had been provided by the School oc 

Chapter 5 The Campus 

Alice Millar Fine Arts Center marker, completed 1973 

Directors, Carl Neumeyer, Rupert Kilgore, and John Ficca. The most complex 
part of the project involved the music facilities, and Neumeyer attended to all 
aspects with meticulous care. He had arranged visits to new facilities at 
Oberlin, the University of Michigan, and Butler for architect Orme Evans and 
himself. My only contributions were to join Neumeyer in insisting on an 
acoustical consultant, which Evans was resisting, and to favor a separate air 
conditioning unit for the art building. We caught a slow construction market 
and bids came in substantially under the estimate. The project was completed 
on schedule without a major hitch. The Art School was moved in by the end of 
1972 and the Music School, in early 1973. Fred Brian caused consternation by 
taking a cutting torch to a door frame in order to move in the Washington press 
before federal inspectors had approved the building. Moving is not a faculty 
art form, nor is patience always available when needed. 

Although no other major buildings were constructed before the chapel in 
1983-84, more than a dozen other projects were scattered over the eighteen 
years. The first was the new president's house built in 1968-69 inasmuch as the 
existing one could not accommodate either my family or University entertain- 
ing. Nell served as construction superintendent. She held the project to less 
than $100,000 at the same time that a million dollar house scandal was driving 
the Southern Illinois University president from office. Evans Observatory 
replaced the former Behr Observatory in 1970, enabling the physics department 
to continue its emphasis on astronomy, optics, and spectroscopy. The ground 
floor of Stevenson Hall was renovated for the psychology department in 1972. 
The Holmes Hall abomination from the lack of air conditioning also was cor- 
rected in 1972, after twelve uncomfortable years. When I arrived I counted 68 


Chapter 5 The Campus 

room air conditioners hanging from its windows. They were noisy, energy 
inefficient and did not really cool the building, leaving the corridors and rest 
rooms humid and virtually unbearable. I could not understand how a glass 
and steel building could have been built without air movement. The story I 
was told was that the former Board President said it was unnecessary since 
Central Illinois had only three days per year on the average when temperatures 
exceeded 100 degrees Fahrenheit! More than insufficient funds had to have 
been involved, because no space had been left for ductwork, necessitating 
clever placement of soffits. 

From 1969 to 1973, the Buck Memorial Library reading room was used as an 
experimental theatre and as an art lecture room. We lacked an audio-visual 
room for 200 students, so the room was air conditioned and a projection booth 
provided in 1974, a use it served for the next fifteen years. The stadium was 
renovated and a press box added in the following year after consultation with 
Notre Dame and the University of Illinois where similar projects had been 
done. We discovered a few years later that the University did not have title to 
the stadium; it had been conveyed to the City for the construction of the 
Bloomington Community Stadium by the Works Progress Administration in 
1937-41 and never returned as intended, although drafts of the reconveyance 
existed. This necessitated another trip to the City Council; this time the City 
fathers (and mothers) were accommodating. 

The Methodist Church was established in 1784 in America by John Wesley 
following the separation caused by the successful Revolution. Lay ministers 
had been sent here from England for several decades before that, beginning 
with the Great Awakening, and the movement rapidly gained adherents. Nell 
and I visited several of the locations in the East associated with the founding: St. 
George's (Methodist) and St. Paul's (Episcopal) churches in Philadelphia; 
Barratt's Chapel near Dover, Delaware, where Francis Asbury met Thomas 
Coke to plan the founding conference, and whom Wesley had appointed as 
superintendents; Lovely Lane in Baltimore, the Tuscan centennial church com- 
memorating the founding built by John Goucher (first president of Goucher 
College) and designed by Stanford White; and Old Otterbein United Methodist 
Church in the Harbor Place area of Baltimore, built the year after the founding 
conference by one of its participants, Bishop Philip Otterbein, founding father 
of the United Brethern Church. We also searched and photographed many of 
the oldest and newest churches in the United Methodist Central Illinois 
Conference to understand the visual expressions of both historic and contempo- 
rary Methodism. The Sammataros contributed pictures of dozens of village 
churches from a trip they made down the Connecticut River in New England. 
We sought input from whomever wished to provide it, including a review of 
other college chapels built in the last thirty-five years. 

After interviewing seven architects interested in the chapel project, Ben 
Weese (Weese Hickey Weese) was selected. Kenneth Browning, the business 
manager, had worked with him at Grinnell College and had discerned his cre- 
ative potential. Weese had also done work for Williams, Carleton, Cornell, 


Chapter 5 The Campus 

Beloit, Drake, and Rochester Institute of Technology. I had given each of the 
architects the four following "purposes to be served by a small chapel: 

"(1) to identify the college as one connected with the United Methodist Church, 
(2) to provide an architectural focus for the campus..., (3) to provide a facility for 
small religious meetings of 200 to 250 people — most Chapel services, memorial 
services, weddings, and (4) to serve a number of ancillary functions — recitals, lec- 
tures and meetings of a size not elsewhere available (except for Buck Library), 
Chaplain's and religion department offices, and another organ practice location." 

The significance of the organ and its location grew as we got further into the 
conceptualization. Weese presented his initial design concepts at the Founder's 
Convocation in 1982. Actually, everyone wanted to get into the act, or to have 
us get out of the project. The members of the religion department, in particular, 
had strong opinions on questions of layout and style. More than a few trustees, 
alumni, and friends of the University expressed the opinion that we should not 
build a chapel, despite the fact that an ad hoc Commission on Church and 
University composed of fourteen clergy, lay leaders, recent alumni, and faculty 
and staff strongly recommended it. 

Wesleyan had never had a free standing chapel. Amie Chapel in Old Main 
served as the religious meeting place from 1872 until 1930 when Westbrook 
Auditorium in Presser Hall became available. Ben Weese absorbed our diverse 
informational overload and executed his plans in a masterly way. He specified 
a Flemish-bond pattern of brickwork, and the cupola, clock and bell tower grew 
in size to gain a better visual perspective from the ground. We tried to use the 
Hedding bell but found that it was cracked, so a slightly smaller one cast in 
Baltimore was purchased. It rings within a few frequencies of C sharp. There 
was concern that the chapel would be dwarfed by the massiveness of Presser 
Hall on the opposite corner, and the tower and hip-roof lines were developed to 
offset that possibility. Weese designed the crosses atop the tower and in the 
oculus; Kevin Strandberg of the art faculty fabricated the first, and Strandberg 
and Miles Bair applied the gold leaf to the second. Weese gradually increased 
the natural light from the narthex to the oculus, by imaginative fenestration and 
skylights fore and aft of the anterior wall of the sanctuary. Sound was brilliant- 
ly reflected but diffused by undulating surfaces; the anterior wall was rounded, 
and the barrel vault was composed of uneven facets (not easily perceptible to 
the eye) to avoid any sound focusing. 

Two comments by Weese in a later article on the chapel reveals his approach. 
"Methodism," he wrote, "a distinct and powerful breakaway from the Church 
of England, produced no parallel breakaway in architectural forms." 
Nevertheless, "of some importance was John Wesley's association with the 
Moravian Anabaptists," and he carefully observed their architectural forms as 
well as their religious piety. Relative to post-modern influences he explicitly 
stated: "I wished to mediate between the extreme postures of historic replica- 
tion on the one hand and v tabula rasa' design expression on the other, by using 
known and familiar shapes and forms but modifying, combining, and permut- 
ing them to something fresh." 


Chapter 5 The Campus 

The sanctuary was designed for 
the spoken voice without amplifica- 
tion, and the organ was chosen for 
the space and the space designed for 
the organ. David Gehrenbeck of our 
faculty served as organ consultant 
and visited the architects in the early 
stages of their work. He arranged 
for four organ builders to bid on the 
instrument and picked the 
Cassavant Freres organ from the 
responses. Weese chose the double- 
cube sanctuary shape for its sound 
qualities in addition to the site 
dimensions. The wrap-around bal- 
cony is characteristic of Wren's 
church arrangements. He consulted 
with the bricklayers on pattern and 
mortar, and made a special trip from 
Chicago to make sure the painter got 
the stain on the oak flooring the right 
shade. Little wonder then that the 
American Institute of Architects fea- 
tured the interior on the cover of its 

monthly publication, Architecture in January 1985 with an article captioned 
"Elegantly Detailed, Soaring Space." The Chicago chapter of the AIA chose the 
interior for its premier award in 1985, and the entire building for a similar 
award in 1987. 

My last building project was the Fort Natatorium. Lankton Ziegele Terry of 
Peoria was chosen after visits with a half dozen architects, and faculty and staff 
trips to about a dozen swimming pools, including Gustavus Adolphus, St. 
Louis University, Arizona, Wheaton, Augustana, Illinois State, and Pontiac 
High School. These visits helped us avoid pitfalls we observed elsewhere, espe- 
cially in sound absorption, indirect lighting, pool shape and gutter arrange- 
ments. Unfortunately, the contractor did not meet specifications on the concrete 
beams supporting the roof structure, and the project was delayed while they 
were torn down and replaced. Then the 25 meter length was found deficient by 
a fraction of an inch. That should have been easy to correct by paring off a 
small amount of the two to three inches of concrete covering the reinforcing 
bars, but again the contractor had missed specifications. A fix was finally 
devised using a hard epoxy material much thinner than the concrete. I think 
we have a fine facility, even if it took an extra year and a half to complete. 

When the swimming pool was in the planning stage, one of our local trustees 
told me the University did not need a new pool. This was after we had thor- 
oughly examined our existing pool in the Memorial Gymnasium which was 
more than 60 years old, relative to other competitive institutions, public and 


Chapter 5 The Campus 

private. Many if not most high schools from which we drew students had facil- 
ities less than half the age of ours. I invited him to visit our existing small pool, 
but he declined. 


"Cdkesbury College, the first Methodist college in the United States; and God set 
it on fire and burned it up... J believe the Lord did it, for they got into a quarrel 
over it and He ended it in that way by fire." 

Peter Cartwright, Fifty Years as a Presiding Elder, 1871 

Fire had ended the first Methodist college established in America by Asbury 
and Coke, who were implementing resolutions adopted at the Christmas 
Conference in 1784. Illinois Wesleyan, too, had experienced devastating fires in 
Hedding Hall in 1943, the Tau Kappa Epsilon house in 1930, and the Kappa 
Delta house in 1957. The five serious fires that occurred during 1968-86 remind- 
ed me of our vulnerability and the less effective preventive measures taken by 
Americans compared to the Europeans or the Japanese, who have more reason 
to be cautious because of the concentration of their cities and prior experience 
with general conflagrations. Other threats exist for colleges — tornadoes in the 
Midwest (Hanover College) or earthquakes (Stanford), but they are less fre- 
quent and ubiquitous. Three of our five fires resulted from arson. 

The first fire occurred only two weeks after I had started the job, in the art 
studio building (house) then located between Gulick and Blackstock Halls. A 
nearby filling station attendant saw and reported it, and our losses were limited 
to the contents of several rooms. Nobody was present; cause, unknown. 

The Presser Hall blaze in 1970 was much more serious, and was clearly the 
result of arson. Damages amounted to more than $250,000, the auditorium 
stage area and several lower level practice rooms were extensively damaged. 
Many instruments were lost, including those owned by students, and the large 
organ had to be returned to the builder for repairs. A contractor who was an 
alumnus moved swiftly to make repairs. Nevertheless, we were without major 
music facilities for almost a year. 

Several juveniles had been chased out of the building by a faculty member 
the day before the fire, and they returned late that night after stealing some 
gasoline to secret themselves in the building before it was closed. Although 
they were apprehended two years later, a conviction was not obtained in the 
jury trial of the leader, for inscrutable reasons. The confessions were rich in 
detail of how the fires had been started. Despite the defense claim that they had 
been obtained under duress, Judge Wayne Townley denied the motion to sup- 
press them. What happened was fairly clear. Ironically, the day after the leader 
was acquitted, another arsonist visited the campus. 


Chapter 5 The Campus 

Two fires of suspicious origin took place in Adams Hall at the corner of Main 
and Beecher on January 24th and 26th, 1975. The Sigma Pi chapter was then 
occupying the house and was being installed as an active chapter that weekend. 
The alarm system alerted the Bloomington Fire Department to the first blaze, 
and it was promptly controlled without much damage. Inexperienced staff per- 
mitted the residents to return without the alarm system functioning. The arson- 
ist returned to try again. It was a grudge, and this time the damage was more 
extensive. Luckily, it was detected, but not without serious threat to the resi- 
dents, and again contained. The arsonist was a former student, who was con- 

The other fire occurred early one Sunday morning during the winter of 1985 
as a result of carelessness with a cigarette in Munsell Hall, a seven-story dormi- 
tory housing 200 women. Residents exited promptly, and the fire was con- 
tained after burning out one room and smoke-damaging several others on the 
floor. About thirty-five residents were displaced for a time. In all of these 
cases, the effectiveness of the Bloomington Fire Department saved us from 
more extensive damage, and they are to be commended. 

I have taken the space to recount these incidents because Americans, and 
particularly young people, do not take the threat of fire seriously enough. If 
they could have felt the heat in Presser Hall twelve hours after the blaze was 
extinguished, they would understand what I mean. Late in my tenure, three 
intelligent pre-med students fired up a grill with lighter fluid in a room in 
Dodds Hall. The flames were observed from Dolan Hall opposite and the hall 
director interceded. We suspended the students for three days close to exami- 
nation time. One of the fathers called me objecting to the severity of the punish- 
ment — his son might not get into medical school. I responded that they were 
adults and had committed three trespasses: (1) they started a fire in a residence 
hall that they might not be able to control, (2) they covered the smoke detector 
with plastic so that it would not trigger the alarm, and (3) they lied to the hall 
director when asked if a fire had been started in the room. God does not start 
fires, people often do, founding father Cartwright notwithstanding. 


"If we cannot get oil, we cannot get corn, we cannot get cotton and we cannot get 
a thousand and one commodities necessary for the preservation of the economic 
energies of Great Britain." 

Winston Churchill, House of Commons, July 17, 1913 

King Faisal is "one hundred percent determined to effect a change in U.S. policy 
and to use oil for that purpose. The King... knows that oil is now an effective 

Ahmed Zaki Yamani, oil minister, Saudi Arabia, 1973 


Chapter 5 The Campus 

The first energy crisis in 1973-74 resulted in a quadrupling in oil prices, and 
the second one following the Iranian Revolution and the beginning of the Iran- 
Iraq War led to oil prices thirteen times the early 1973 level. We had ample rea- 
son to conserve energy for cost containment, yet retrofitting old systems is not 
easy. Fortuitously, we had shifted to natural gas from oil the year before, and it 
was a cleaner, more efficient source of heat. In 1975 we installed an IBM System 
7 to manage the ventilating and air conditioning load in our buildings. It 
lacked flexibility and was somewhat disappointing, although it did interrupt 
and stagger motor and compressor startups so that peak loads were reduced. 
Solar screens were installed on Sherff Hall in 1978 and on Holmes Hall the fol- 
lowing year to cut down on radiant heat absorption and cooling requirements. 
Energy efficient lighting was installed first in the Fieldhouse and gradually in 
other buildings. Oil burners were replaced by gas furnaces in all houses in use. 
In 1984, a new system employing a microcomputer to instruct microprocessors 
controlling energy use in the Library was installed, and the following year it 
was extended to fourteen buildings. Variable speed motors were installed in air 
handling equipment. These steps improved our conservation efforts substantially. 

George Shaver, who became director of planning and engineering in 1971, 
took the early lead in fostering energy conservation and in managing construc- 
tion and planned maintenance projects. When he retired in 1983, Millard 
Jorgenson took over as director of the physical plant, and he was both active 
and successful in pursuing energy-saving measures. He found many solutions 
to ongoing plant maintenance problems through interest and persistence. 

Both the chapel and the swimming pool are efficient in the use of energy. 
Pulse boilers were installed in the chapel rather than attaching it to the central 
heating system, which suffers large ambient losses, whereas the boilers are 
highly efficient. Dehumidifiers in the pool building reduce corrosion and make 
it more comfortable. Also the heat from dehumidification is used to heat the 
pool water, to pre-heat the hot water for showers, and to provide part of the 
building heat. 


Chapter 6 Financing the University 

Chapter 6 
Financing the University 

"Capitals are increased by parsimony, and diminished by prodigality 
and misconduct." 

Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, 1776 

robably the biggest financial challenge to the private col- 
lege administrator is to keep the institution affordable to as many people as 
possible, whatever their income level or resources. This we were able to do at 
Illinois Wesleyan by holding the increases in tuition and fees to less than the 
average for either private or public colleges and universities throughout the 
country during my two decades. Also essential, the availability of financial aid 
made it possible for anyone to attend. By increasing gift and endowment 
income faster than the rise in University grant aid, we also avoided any financ- 
ing of lower income students by higher tuition on those who could afford our 

Of the five functional responsibilities of administration — academic affairs, 
admission, business, development, and student life — that of business or finan- 
cial administration was facilitated because I came with seventeen years experi- 
ence in finance and the attendant problems of balancing anticipated revenues 
and expenditure commitments. In addition, I had excellent help from Hugh 
Henning as Treasurer of the Board and William Goebel as Secretary and 
University counsel. Both gave many hours of careful advice. I was ably assisted 
by Phil Kasch in the last thirteen of his thirty-two years at Wesleyan and by Ken 
Browning in the first five years of his tenure. I learned quickly to be sure that 
Kasch was pointed in the right direction because he always took off like an 
antelope to accomplish any mission assigned. Kasch was unusually able, and 
behind his myopic squint, there lurked an eagerness to help make all of our 
lives easier. The Student Center is really a monument to his interest and persis- 
tence. Browning brought a different set of skills, including his engineering and 
graduate business degrees from MIT, augmented by practical experience in stu- 
dent services at MIT and business affairs at Grinnell College. 


Chapter 6 Financing the University 


Mark Evans Observatory, completed 1970 

Several of the problems we faced were not easy, but I always felt we knew 
what to do and could count on the support of the Board for the necessary mea- 
sures. I mention this because many presidents of other institutions get into trou- 
ble in financial administration and often appear to be in a quandary as to what 
to do. Occasionally, I suspect, there is a push for their own recognition, rather 
than responsible leadership for the welfare of the institution. 

With the concurrence of Board members, we adopted a balanced operating 
budget approach for a number of reasons. Sooner or later all institutions must 
follow this discipline, although temporary departures may occur. We inherited 
a ten-year record of balanced operating budgets from Lloyd Bertholf and, if 
achievable, it was a record we could build on and talk about. In 1968 also, 
Illinois Wesleyan had limited reserves relative to its obligations, and what it 
had were not highly liquid. The endowment was chiefly invested in farmland. 

Above all, donors, foundations, and granting agencies were interested in 
knowing whether the institution was responsibly managed. If a small, relatively 
weak but sound, not well-known college was to make its way forward, it could 
not do so with deficit financing. This was clear to me, although there may have 
been those who wished to spend more without understanding the consequences. 

Another inheritance from the Bertholf administration was a plant more or 
less adequate for our needs after construction of residence halls, an expanded 
student center, science building, field house, and library. We had immediate 
needs for financing the Fine Arts Center, but once that was accomplished, capi- 


Chapter 6 Financing the University 

tal projects were more modest for a decade. Rather, the needs were for renova- 
tion and major maintenance. The reduced need for plant spending made it pos- 
sible for us to shift the emphasis to increasing the endowment, and to lessen the 
dependence of the current fund on tuition and fee income, which had risen dur- 
ing the decade of heavy spending on buildings during the 1960s. 

Accordingly, plant investment doubled during my eighteen years, while 
debt actually declined. All of our debt was long-term, connected with building 
construction. We did no short-term borrowing. Endowment investment based 
on cost rose to five times what it had been at the beginning of the period. At 
market value, the endowment increased to more than seven times its 1968 value. 

Inasmuch as the professional schools were a heavy financial burden, Illinois 
Wesleyan had too little endowment in 1968, and the shift in emphasis to 
endowment expansion was necessary and timely. The three Fine Arts Schools 
and the School of Nursing each required separate buildings and other facilities, 
and the Music and Nursing Schools necessitated unusually high faculty-to-stu- 
dent ratios. These requirements mandated that we attempt to raise current gift 
and endowment income faster than spending increased in order to carry these 
expensive and attractive programs. Otherwise, heavy reliance on tuition and 
fees might affect our competitive position among colleges and universities in 
the Midwest, something we could not let happen. 

Once the Fine Arts Center was completed, we had an attractive set of facili- 
ties with a few pluses. We had private offices for all faculty, unusual studio 
facilities for art and music students, and a spacious student center. I believe we 
were not overinvested in facilities as were many other institutions. For example, 
more than a few colleges bought mainframe computers when they had little use 
for them at the time-it was the thing to do. Wesleyan had access to one or more 
mainframes during my eighteen years through terminal connections. Plans also 
had been made for purchasing a midrange computer when I retired. 

Colleges and universities require large capital investments with few guide- 
lines to suggest how much is enough. Buildings and adequate facilities are nec- 
essary, but they all require maintenance and renewal. Excessive facilities add 
nothing to the quality of education, and they detract from resources available 
for faculty and student aid. 


"You need to know what your college or university can or cannot do, and what 
it wants to do... and should do." 

George Keller, Academic Strategy, 1983 

"One way to understand the forces at work is to look at universities as nonprofit, 
labor intensive businesses that must balance their annual budgets. For much of 
the last two decades, that way often has been to raise tuition, and many universi- 
ties stand accused of having been spendthrifts." 

Anthony De Palma, The New York Times, February 3, 1992 Qf - 

Chapter 6 Financing the University 

Managing the current operating budget of a university is one of the supreme 
balancing acts. More like the Brazilian toy that wobbles precariously on a small 
platform than an experienced tight rope walker, the balancing act is an art form 
based on future commitments and subsequent absorption of only necessary 
changes. Future commitments must be carefully equated to prospective rev- 
enue streams, some of which are unpredictable at the time commitments for 
faculty compensation and student aid grants are made. There are always a 
number of expense items bringing their own surprises. The drama is played out 
on an arcane set of rules known as fund accounting, which is intended to be 
straight-forward and logical if understood by those responsible. Unfortunately, 
the parties to the game do not know the rules. Nevertheless, we play. 

Fund accounting is a set of accounting practices developed for governmental 
and charitable organizations which establishes separate funds for specific pur- 
poses and rigidly controls the application of resources for these purposes. 
Transfers from fund to fund are possible, again following established lines of 
authority. This is all very proper. The rub occurs when the trustees responsible 
for the organization are usually more familiar with another set of rules, that of 
corporate or business accounting, where the accounts are more likely to be inte- 
grated into one entity. Business, government, or charitable organizations are 
subject to occasional finagling, as anyone who follows these things is aware. 
The problem arises when there is widespread misunderstanding of fund 
accounting by those charged with responsibility for an organization such as 
volunteers or part-time overseers. Imagine the pleasure of a college president, 
not necessarily malicious, whose business officer can find an unused pocket of 
funds that may be tapped to meet an unexpected operating deficit. The transfer 
may be perfectly legitimate, especially at first. Yet somewhere down the road, 
the unsuspecting trustee may learn that funds have been misapplied, that an 
endowment has been bled away by a business officer too eager to assist a per- 
plexed administrator in a bind. I watched this happen at several reputable col- 

The peculiarities of fund accounting, together with fairly long lead-times in 
budgetary commitments and the vagaries of a few important categories of the 
budget, create the occasional circumstances when irregularities might be con- 
templated. That is why the sorting and separation of needs and desires is 
required along with the realization that both are usually not possible with the 
resources available. An operating budget is an attempt to translate the educa- 
tional programs into dollars, and to estimate faculty and staff and supporting 
service requirements essential for meeting student needs. The interests and 
preferences of no single group can be given priority if the educational benefits 
for students are to be optimized — not schools, not departments, nor faculty, nor 
staff. Budget preparation constitutes the greatest opportunity for the college 
administrator to demonstrate skill and vision in matching limited resources 
with the needs for an improving program of higher education. Even Harvard 
and Yale experience periodic budgetary binds, as has been demonstrated again 
in the early 1990s. 


Chapter 6 Financing the University 

TABLE 6.1 



(in thousands of dollars) 

Operating Expense 



1986 as 
of 1968 

Aver. % 





Student Grants-in-aid 





Current Gifts 





Alumni Gifts 





Endowment Fund 





(at Market) 

Wesleyan's current operating budget (technically the combination of the 
educational and general, food service and residence hall funds) almost quadru- 
pled during my eighteen years, as shown in Table 6.1. That made an average 
annual increase of 7.7 percent. To accomplish this general rate of increase with a 
balanced budget, even faster increases in current gifts and endowment income 
were necessary because of rapid growth in several important categories of 
spending. Chief among these was a rise in student financial aid to almost seven 
times its beginning level in eighteen years, an increase of more than 1 1 percent 
annually. Achieving these results with a balanced budget of revenues and 
expenditures requires some foresight of what may happen, careful planning, 
and a measure of good fortune or luck. 

The budgetary cycle which we evolved for annual revenue and spending 
plans worked effectively in enabling us to avoid most of the financial shoals. I 
described it to the faculty in 1972 in the following paraphrased manner: 

Budget-making starts about fifteen months before the academic year begins with 
a discussion of tuition and fees in the Cabinet and with the Executive Committee 
of the Board. A preliminary revenue budget for the following year is prepared in 
October and presented for approval to the Board of Trustees. This becomes our 
authority to make obligations for faculty appointments and compensation in 
February. Detailed expenditure budgets for the following year and five-year plans 
are started in January and become the basis for a second tentative budget prepared 
and presented to the Board in May. Finally, after final results of the prior year are 9 7 

Chapter 6 Financing the University 

known and fall enrollment is ascertained in September , a final budget for the new 
year is assembled and presented in October. 

Revenue and expenditure progress was reviewed with the Executive 
Committee monthly. In 1969, the Illinois Board of Higher Education requested 
data on unit costs per credit hour by department for planning purposes. We 
found the information useful as a guide in showing how our costs ranked for 
the various programs. For this reason, we continued to compile and review the 
data each subsequent year. 

Tuition and fees were very carefully established after reviewing relevant 
information. First, we compared charges at those institutions most competitive 
with Wesleyan — the dozen or so colleges and universities also considered by 
students attending IWU and the institutions chosen by those who applied but 
went elsewhere. The fact that our first and second largest competitors were the 
University of Illinois and Illinois State University always injected a note of cau- 
tion. Second, we looked at ability to pay, that is, income per person after taxes 
(disposable personal income per capita) and other price indexes. Above all, we 
did not wish to outrun family income capability, and this was accomplished in 
the years I was responsible for establishing fees. 

Our tuition and fee increases were less than average for those in either pri- 
vate or public institutions throughout the nation. We also simplified the fee 
structure by eliminating what I thought were nuisance practices in higher edu- 
cation — application fees, graduation fees, student teaching fees, clinical labora- 
tory fees, etc. We folded them into one charge for tuition, reasoning that the 
proliferation of small fees created an irritation for families and a profusion of 
bookkeeping for our staff. 

Studies of college attendance patterns revealed that college selection was 
sensitive to tuition or cost differentials. Therefore, we avoided unnecessary or 
excessive tuition and fee increases and provided ample financial aid to enable 
students from any family economic background to attend. The policy of provid- 
ing financial aid to students on the basis of need had been started in 1962, and 
we followed the practice of arranging "a financial aid proposal to meet the need 
of any qualified student whose application is accepted for admission" through- 
out my years. Whether financial aid furnished by the University is viewed as 
price discounting or as an expense, it rose rapidly for a number of reasons, 
despite our care in raising tuition. College attendance rates were rising, 
enabling more "need" students to join the enrollment, family breakups were 
also increasing, thereby shifting a portion of parental responsibility to the col- 
leges, and student need assessment analyses were liberalized by the agencies 
responsible for making them. 

As a consequence, financial aid rose at a rate of 11.2 percent annually from 
1968 to 1986, doubling in less than seven years, to 678 percent of the initial level 
by the end of the period, as shown in Table 6.1. Fortunately, we were able to 
increase endowment income even more rapidly to accommodate the need. By 
1985-86 gift and endowment income was still exceeding the almost $1.9 million 
in University aid — 12.2 percent of operating expenses — avoiding any implied 

Chapter 6 Financing the University 

transfer of costs from higher to lower income families through the application 
of tuition for that purpose. Government aid to Wesleyan students had declined 
18 percent from 1980 to 1983 while need was rising, forcing the University to 
become the provider of an additional $409,000 in the latter year to meet the fed- 
eral and state shortfall. Actually, the University had to increase its grant aid half 
again as much by 1983 in order to cover the rising need. 

Another budgetary adaptation to accommodate student financial circum- 
stances was the development of a 
monthly payment plan in 1975. This 
plan enabled families to divide 
tuition and fees into twelve equal 
payments beginning in May. No 
interest charges were added, and 
about half of the families adopted it 
that year. Use of the plan has 
remained at that level through the 
years. Wesleyan was one of the 
early innovators in providing such 
arrangements, which have become 
more widespread. 

The volatility of governmental 
sources of aid as well as the lumpi- 
ness of large maintenance projects 
gave rise to the establishment of a 
number of reserve accounts to 
enable us to absorb some of the 
fluctuation in expenditures more 
readily and to pay for postponable 
maintenance when we had the 
funds available. In 1971, we institut- 
ed a transfer (of surpluses, when 
they occurred) from the operating 

fund to the plant fund for renewals and replacements. Three years later we 
established an endowment income stabilization reserve (explained later), and 
about that time we also put aside an amount equal to one year's debt repay- 
ment on the Fine Arts Center as a reserve. The first two of these fluctuated from 
time to time based on the availability and need for funds, but they enabled us to 
plan outlays more carefully and to have a buffer if needed. When I retired, 
these reserves amounted to approximately 12 percent of the following year's 
operating budget. I did not consider this to be excessive in light of the variation 
we experienced in both revenue and spending that could not be anticipated. I 
had started eighteen years earlier with no reserves and a budgeted deficit, and I 
knew how that felt. 

Also in the mid-1970s we instituted an annual practice of estimating antici- 
pated outlays for plant improvements in addition to possible emergency needs 

•m airtiiiiSiii^ 
Evelyn Chapel, completed 1984 


Chapter 6 Financing the University 

annually as a basis for determining how much of plant and reserve funds need- 
ed to be in cash or liquid form. We estimated the number of houses on the edge 
of the campus that we might purchase in the next year or two plus the loss of 10 
percent of students over a two-year period. Our reasoning was that the provi- 
sion would give us enough of a cushion to make adjustments in an orderly 
way. Actually, the funds were invested in the Common Fund for Short Term 
Investments (in which a thousand institutions participate) at better than money 
market rates with overnight access if needed. 

I learned early that unusual maintenance expenditures were difficult to 
absorb in the annual operating budget, whether it was a roof replacement, 
transformer failure, flooded underground electric terminal, or a steam line 
breakage. For example, about the time the Presser Hall renovation was com- 
pleted, the forty-one-year-old nails holding the slate shingles in place on the 
roof began to fail, a shingle at a time. Inevitably, during a speech or pianissimo 
section of a musical performance, one of the slates near the crown of the roof 
would let go, slide audibly down the roof, and crash to the ground. These kinds 
of major repairs were orphans, no donor was receptive to an appeal that some- 
one forgot to anticipate their occurrence. They had to be accommodated within 
the operating budget or reserve for renewal. Routine maintenance was facilitat- 
ed by an accommodating office manager, Roger Brucker, in the physical plant, 
who managed competing complaints with courtesy and dispatch. 

Non-academic personnel responsibilities were centralized in the Business 
Office in 1971. Cabinet officers were charged with the responsibility of inter- 
viewing and approving all prospective employees. As mentioned earlier, the 
food service was contracted with Saga in 1969, which then operated more than 
275 food services at colleges and universities. They brought far more experience 
than a single operator could muster, and our relationship with them was always 
satisfactory. (Soon after I retired they sold out to Marriott). Property and liabili- 
ty insurance was reviewed periodically. Health insurance became a problem in 
the 1980s as medical costs escalated. Maternity coverage for all organizations 
was mandated by a federal court in 1979. We had to curtail first dollar coverage 
a few years later, institute deductibles, and find a new carrier when our compa- 
ny left the business. For a time we offered a health maintenance organization 
option as well as traditional insurance. 

The energy cost surges in 1974 and again in 1979-80 pushed us into a multi- 
year conservation effort as mentioned in Chapter 5. More difficult for us was 
the inflationary binge in the late 1970s and early 1980s because we could not 
respond proportionately by raising tuition revenue without inflicting excessive 
strain on our students' families and losing enrollment to the public sector. As a 
result, our compensation levels could not keep abreast of the price inflation for 
several years. We recovered as quickly as we thought wise, but the intensity of 
the inflation stretched the catch-up period into a decade-long endeavor. 

Current gifts to the University, primarily for student aid and faculty support, 
rose to more than 400 percent of their beginning level in the eighteen years, or 
at a rate of 8.5 percent annually. These gifts increased every year and constituted 


Chapter 6 Financing the University 

5 percent of operating expenses in 1985-86. The truly dynamic part of current 
giving came from the alumni, who almost doubled their gifts every five years. 
Participation in the alumni fund doubled to 36 percent of those solicited, and of 
course, the number of alumni kept growing each year. In the late 1970s, we 
shifted our technique from letter writing and the use of class agents to 
phonothons. This led to improved results. Alumni became the largest source of 
current gifts — almost half of the total. The Boards of the Century Club and the 
President's Club were indispensable in organizing the annual campaigns and in 
expanding the effort to friends in the community. 

Wesleyan Parents grew out of the Dads 7 Association with the appeal of pick- 
ing up student assistance for any family losing a supporting parent or guardian 
while the student was in college. About half of our families contributed. 
Business donations came through the Wesleyan Associates locally and the 
Associated Colleges of Illinois throughout the state. The latter organization was 
a group of twenty-eight small independent institutions which banded together 
for the purpose of joint solicitation. United Methodist support was important to 
us and came from the Central Illinois Conference. Other commitments prevent- 
ed the church from expanding its support rapidly, but it grew to more than 
$100,000 in the mid-1980s. 

Governmental assistance to students both from federal and state govern- 
ments began in the late 1950s. Illinois has one of the more vigorous indepen- 
dent or private sectors among the states in higher education, and it has assisted 
private college students more generously than most other states. In addition to 
its aid to students, the State of Illinois began a modest program of direct assis- 
tance to colleges based on per capita grants for each Illinois student enrolled in 
1971. About the same time, State of Illinois grants were begun for nursing stu- 
dents enrolled as there was a shortage of nurses. The motivation behind these 
programs was to avoid the much higher costs of educating students in public 
universities should the independent institutions fail because of tuition differen- 
tials. This reasoning seemed wise to me as an economist, and the funds were 
important to Illinois Wesleyan in helping us to compete with the much lower 
tuition public institutions. 

Our ability to grow the endowment and endowment income proved to be 
the saving grace in enabling the University to meet its current obligations. We 
created sufficient reserves to guarantee survival on a rainy day and give us time 
to make adjustments if needed. The annual income transfer from the endow- 
ment fund to the current operating fund was increased at a rate of 10 percent 
annually from 1968 to 1986. Actually, this was less rapid than the growth of 
endowment income and allowed for the establishment of operating fund 
reserves and a small plowback of income into the endowment. Under fund 
accounting rules, the transfer of endowment income to the operating fund is a 
discretionary decision of the trustees. Theoretically, they may transfer any of 
the following: (1) all of cash income received, (2) an amount less than cash 
income, but rising at a fixed rate, and creation of a stabilization reserve, and (3) 
a fixed percentage of the endowment's market value, usually for a three to five 
year average period. The assured transfer of 10 percent more each year provided 

Chapter 6 Financing the University 

a steady expansion that could be planned in the operating budget. Since our 
endowment income did fluctuate, it shielded our operating budget from these 
changes, and also avoided dipping into the endowment to make up operating 
deficits, which is tempting to many institutions. This seemed far superior to the 
popular practice of transferring an average percentage of endowment market 
value, especially when market values are subject to change. It also prevented 
subtle pressure for higher current yields leading to unwise long-term invest- 
ment decisions. At any rate, it worked very well for Wesleyan during my years. 

Cutting through the fund accounting concepts, the revenue side of the oper- 
ating budget for 1986 can be summarized as follows. Students and their families 
were paying for almost two-thirds of operating costs (educational and living 
expenses) either in cash or repayable loans and employment at the University. 
Government grants to students or the University were defraying almost one- 
fifth of costs. University- provided student aid from gift or endowment income 
accounted for one-eighth of the total, and a minor portion came from miscella- 
neous fees and interest income on operating funds invested for short periods. 

Given this financial summary and the composition of income and spending 
together with the competitive environment of higher education, it seems evi- 
dent to me that the strength of an institution is more dependent on a healthy 
enrollment pattern and its academic quality than anything else. The primary 
task of a college president is not fund raising, as it is often erroneously thought 
to be by trustees and faculty hard pressed to meet incessant needs. It is main- 
taining and improving the educational significance and functional viability of 
the institution among people in the area it serves. Current operating budgets 


Chapter 6 Financing the University 

are inextricably linked to capital fund needs — endowments and buildings. They 
are all means to the end of offering an attractive package of academic programs. 


"A representative group of common stocks bought at a reasonable price level can 
be counted on to provide a higher total return than bonds. The probability of 
inflation has removed many of the safeguards inherent in bond investment and 
requires a significant holding of common stocks as a protective measure." 

Graham and Dodd's Security Analysis, Fifth Edition, 1988 

"Graham's greatness as an investor may well have consisted in knowing 
how to say no." 

John Train, The Money Masters, 1980 

Investment strategies and institutional needs change from decade to decade. 
Nothing is immutable; what is required is a wise assessment of needs and pos- 
sibilities, a series of actions that enable the institution to face its future with the 
promise of fulfillment rather than a sense of frustration and predicament. In 
the 1968-86 interval the need was to shift new resources in the direction of 
endowment, while completing and maintaining an adequate plant. That 
involved moving from a ratio of plant funds to endowment of three to two to 
the reciprocal with endowment funds exceeding plant funds by half. Plant 
fund assets doubled while endowment assets at market rose to more than 718 
percent of their beginning level as shown in Table 6.1. Plant additions were 
more than paid for by new gifts, and debt was reduced. Gifts accounted for the 
largest increment in endowment, although appreciation of common stock and 
farm investments added almost as much. Finally, we added to the power of 
compounding by plowing back a small portion of endowment income into the 

I was assisted in fund raising by three able development directors, each pos- 
sessing different strengths. Lee Short knew several generations of Wesleyan 
families from student days through his long tenure in admission. He served 
imaginatively, as was his style, for seven years but never wished to consider 
himself as a fundraiser. Larry Hitner was director for eight years and came 
with long professional experience in development at Eckerd and King Colleges. 
He prepared for each event or solicitation with meticulous care and added sev- 
eral new dimensions to our work. He was succeeded for my last three years by 
Richard Whitlock, who had joined us seven years earlier with a background 
chiefly in current giving. In those years he acquired the skills necessary to deal 
with the complex forms of deferred gifts and estate planning, which became an 
important feature of our approach. Ben Rhodes joined us in 1979. He is anoth- 
er alumnus with extensive knowledge of the Bloomington and Wesleyan con- 


Chapter 6 Financing the University 

stituencies. Later, he moved into deferred giving and an expanded role in the 
development staff. 

The staff consisted of four development professionals, three in publicity and 
publications, and usually five clerical people. Through energy and ingenuity, 
Celeste Flachsbart grew from one of these latter positions to play a professional 
role on the development staff several years later. Our publications became 
more professional once Colette Sicks assumed responsibility for their prepara- 

Two major capital campaigns were conducted in the period, the Ten Million 
Dollar Program (TMP) completed in 1976 and the Alumni Campaign for 
Endowment (ACE) finished in 1985. Each was roughly six and one-half years 
in planning and execution. We employed John Bolinger of Claremont, 
California, as our development consultant throughout my years and benefitted 
in many ways from his knowledge and counsel. We focused on major gifts 
rather than attempt to run an "every member canvass/' and tried to involve 
alumni and friends as widely as possible in current budget gifts. As mentioned, 
these latter gifts rose every year, and the number of alumni contributors 
increased from 1700 to 4600. The first capital campaign sought to finance the 
Fine Arts Center and to double the endowment, and it raised $10 million as its 
name implied. The second campaign was directed toward endowment expan- 
sion and also embraced the chapel and the swimming pool. It was aimed at 
alumni and raised $15 million, and while it was in progress, we raised another 
$15 million from other donors. 

The Fine Arts Center financing was the most difficult I encountered because 
the institution's resources were limited relative to the size of the project ($3 mil- 
lion) and the lack of identity of the University to the philanthropic community. 
I recall one influential trustee counseling me to scale it back or forget it. Any 
residual questions about the need for the project were dispelled in 1970 after the 
Fine Arts Visiting Committee walked through all of our facilities and heard pre- 
sentations by the Fine Arts School directors. They endorsed the need fully. The 
embarrassing aspect was that the federal government had made an $824,000 
grant for the project in 1967 when it was in the initial planning stage. Federal 
loan funds were also available then, but before we could get our third of the 
funds in hand, the loan program was terminated. A federal interest subsidy for 
the difference between a federal loan and a private one was, however, available. 
Foster McGaw's generous offer of $2 million for the project came as an estate 
note, which still necessitated borrowing. By 1971, enough colleges were 
encountering financial difficulty to make lenders skeptical. We made many 
inquiries and prepared six full-blown presentations before finding two lenders 
willing to explore the loan. Eventually, a twenty-five year loan was arranged 
with a Chicago institution. Two years later, McGaw gave the University stock 
in the amount of his promise. 

The thirty largest gifts and donors to Illinois Wesleyan during my tenure are 
listed in Table 6.2. They total almost $15 million and average about $500,000. 
Nine of them exceed the average. McGaw was a great philanthropist for col- 
1 n4 leges and universities and distributed most of his wealth, stemming from 

Chapter 6 Financing the University 

American Hospital Supply Corporation which he founded, before he died in 
1986. In addition to Wesleyan's Fine Arts Center, the chapel at Northwestern 
also was named for his mother, Alice Millar. His gift commitment of $2 million 
in 1971 was by far the largest gift to the University up to that time. Of the thirty 
largest gifts, half were from alumni, ten were from people in the Bloomington 
area, eleven had Methodist or other church motivation, and nine were from 
trustees or were influenced by trustees. (Some of these gifts fit into more than 
one category). Nine of the gifts consisted of farmland. 

All of the donors deserve comment, but several illustrate giving to the 
University. Jessie Moorman, the wife of one of the two brothers who inherited 
and led the Moorman Manufacturing Co., had three daughters who graduated 
from Wesleyan. She left a block of stock in the company to Wesleyan in 1971, 
which is worth more than $1 million today. R. Forrest Col well was a trustee for 
fifteen years and the nephew of Dr. John Bruner Colwell, a 1898 alumnus and 
founder of the Colwell Company, which Forrest headed. He and his aunt, 
Pauline Colwell, made a gift to the University in 1971 to establish a scholarship 
fund and the Colwell Chair in American Literature. William R. Forney, a 1903 
IWU law graduate who had founded the Benjamin Harrison Law School in 
Indianapolis, left a major portion of his estate to Illinois Wesleyan. His law 
school later was incorporated into the Indiana University School of Law. 

Jack Sheean was a Bloomington office furniture supplier who had designed 
products as diverse as engine gasket racks and display cases for the New York 
Botanical Society. I had assisted him in reestablishing a business contact and he 
left a major gift to the University when he died in 1977. His widow, Evelyn 
Sheean, added to his bequest to name the library in his honor. Several years 
later we approached her for a deferred gift to provide the principal financing 
for the chapel and she readily agreed. She was diffident about naming the 
chapel in her honor, but once done, she enjoyed seeing it become a reality. As 
time passed, she took a great interest in Nell and our children and claimed us as 
her family. A further bequest in 1989 enabled her and her husband to surpass 
Foster McGaw as the University's largest benefactor. 

In 1979, a 101 -year-old retired farmer, Reimer D. Witt, who lived in the town 
of Homer, Illinois, bequeathed an undivided half interest in a nearby 220-acre 
farm to the University. He was a United Methodist and in the 1940s he had 
purchased a $1000 annuity for his wife and himself from Illinois Wesleyan. We 
obviously lost money on the annuity and gained far more from his bequest. 
Regrettably, that was as far as the record could be traced; the motivation of his 
gift lay buried in the penumbra of past development efforts and his interest in 
this church-related college. About the same time, Mrs. Louise Behr Empson 
passed away at the age of 103. She was the niece of the donor of the Behr tele- 
scope and attended the Academy or preparatory school in the 1890s. She and 
her husband, Robert, left 1156 acres of McLean County land in trust, half for the 
benefit of Wesleyan. 

A Philadelphia painter and art teacher, Arrah Lee Gaul, visited the campus 
in 1971 almost unannounced. Her impression must have been favorable 


Chapter 6 Financing the University 

TABLE 6.1 

AND DONORS, 1968-86 




National Science Foundation 

Natural & social sciences 

Foster G. McGaw 

Alice Millar Center for the Fine Arts 

Jessie Moorman 


R. Forrest Colwell & 

Colwell Prof, of American 

Mrs. John B. Colwell 


Lulu Law 

Lulu Law Student Loan Fund 

Kresge Foundation 

Fine Arts Center 



Emma Genseke 

Genseke Scholarship Fund 

Glenn Dodds '26 

Dodds Hall 

William R. Forney '03 


Lilly Endowment 

Liberal Arts College programs 

Margaret Wakeley 

Wakeley Gallery 


Winifred Wisner 


Gladys E. Purkey '24 


Adaline Thorpe Weckel '27 

Thorpe Music Library 

Jack and Evelyn Sheean 

Sheean Library 

A. Lorraine Kraft '21 


Reimer D. Witt 


Robert & Louise Behr Empson 

Empson Scholarship Fund 

State Farm Foundation 

Adlai H. Rust Chair of Insurance 

Thaddeus & Leota Stubblefield Trust 

Endowment for Student Center 

Arrah Lee Gaul 

Endowment and paintings 

Louise Macy '28 


Homer B. '30 & Viola Field 

Sunset Chapel 

Kenneth B. Mears '32 


Evelyn Sheean 

Evelyn Chapel 

Daisy L. McFee '24 

McFee Prof, of Religion 

Zimmerman family 

Rex James Bates & Richard 

B. Peterson Scholarship Funds 

Agnes W. Christopher 

Christopher Scholarship 

Fund (Music) 

Russell 0.'43 & Betty Shirk 

Athletic facilities 

Lester L'36 & Roberta Smith 

Chapel reception area 



Chapter 6 Financing the University 

because she left the bulk of her estate and her paintings to the University in 
honor of her father, Christian Lee Gaul. He was a Methodist minister and the 
recipient of a non-resident doctor of philosophy degree from Wesleyan in 1899. 
(The correspondence program existed from 1874 to 1910.) She had painted and 
sketched extensively abroad, especially in the Orient and the Arab countries of 
North Africa and the Middle East. Her bequest to Wesleyan included more 
than 200 paintings and many sketches of people. She thought we needed more 
art and decoration on the campus, and we did. 

A teacher and librarian at Rochelle High School near Rockford, Louise Macy, 
a 1928 alumna, also left a major bequest to Wesleyan. She was a member of the 
Board of Visitors and an active United Methodist. 

To the four named chairs and professorships that existed or were provided 
for in 1968, four additional ones were added in the next eighteen years. In addi- 
tion to the Colwell Chair in American Literature, the Adlai H. Rust Chair in 
Insurance was created, the Daisy McFee Professorship of Religion and the 
Robert S. Eckley Professorship of Economics were provided by gifts to the 
University. The professorship in my name was a pleasant surprise announced 
at my retirement, funded by trustees, faculty and staff, alumni, and friends. 

The five additional large buildings and the Presser Hall renovation required 
about two-thirds of the $14 million added to plant fund assets during the eight- 
een years. The remainder went into many smaller projects and property acqui- 
sition associated with campus expansion. The $1 million required for Dodds 
Hall was initially funded by a federal loan in 1970. In 1984, the loan was retired 
along with others from endowment funds when the federal government made 
this option financially advantageous. Later the building was substantially 
financed by a gift from a major donor, for whom Dodds Hall is named. 

Not all memorials on the campus result from gifts. The Student Center 
expansion and Munsell Hall project had been the largest one for Lloyd Bertholf, 
so the Commons dining area was named for him and Martha. As he 
approached his eightieth birthday, we recognized his accomplishments at 
Wesleyan and his continuing dedication and interest. 

Evelyn Chapel attracted more donors than any other project during my years 
at Wesleyan — 70 named gifts and 355 others prior to its dedication in 1984. 
Many more have been added since then. The final cost was $1.8 million, and 
we were able to raise almost that much more to endow its operation. 

The financing of the Fort Natatorium had been assured in a 1965 bequest 
from Judge Arthur C. Fort, an 1897 alumnus, who left three farms and other 
assets in a trust which was distributed to the University in 1986. Inasmuch as 
the Fort bequest entailed the naming of an unspecified building, we sought to 
cover as much of its $2.9 million cost as possible by new gifts to fund its opera- 
tion. The $1.5 million announced for that fund drive was largely accomplished 
when I retired in 1986. 


Chapter 6 Financing the University 

Investment Management 

The sevenfold rise in the endowment from 1968 to 1986 represented an 11.6 
percent annual growth from additions, appreciation, and the reinvestment of a 
small portion of endowment income. The determination of a total rate of return 
on invested assets would require the disentangling of appreciation from the 
above rate of growth (plus the addition of endowment income that averaged 
approximately 4.5 percent annually from 1975 to 1986) — all of which is not pos- 
sible from the historic data available. Suffice it to say that both the investment 
security and farm real estate components appear to have moved favorably rela- 
tive to market averages during the period. 

The shift away from farm investments to common stocks was conceived by 
Hugh Henning, Treasurer and Chairman of the Investment Committee, and 
me. Other trustees in the Investment and Business Affairs Committees con- 
curred. It was achieved largely by making additions to common stocks, 
although it was frustrated (fortunately) by the tripling of farmland values dur- 
ing the 1970s. Farmland constituted two- thirds of the endowment portfolio in 
1970, and it was not until 1980 that it dropped below half. The ensuing decline 
in farm values and continued additions to equity holdings shifted the composi- 
tion to less than a quarter in farms by the time I retired in 1986. They have con- 
tinued to diminish as a part of the entire portfolio. The second thrust of our 
evolving investment policy was to limit fixed income investments in favor of 
equities. The perpetual nature of the University made the total return approach 
appropriate. Longer period studies emphasize the superiority of equity and 
farm investments over fixed income alternatives. These historical results also 
led us to limit bond holdings, which offer higher current returns without the 
opportunity for appreciation inherent in common stocks. 

The Investment Committee included the four officers of the Board and the 
President originally, as a sub-committee of the Executive Committee of the 
Board. To these we subsequently added the Chairman of the Farm sub-com- 
mittee and State Farm's chief investment officer, Rex James Bates, once he 
joined the Board in 1978. Substantial amounts of time and expertise were 
required from these individuals as the following narrative will reveal. An ad 
hoc Investment Advisory Committee met several times under the leadership of 
Edward B. Rust to consider the overall strategy of the endowment portfolio. 
Membership in this group was more than a dozen and provided a discussion 
format with experts from State Farm Insurance investment department, the 
Common Fund leadership (a mutual fund for college and university endow- 
ments), and the Northern Trust Company to advise on various investment 

The University owned sixteen farms in 1968 totalling 5357 acres. Eighteen 
years later there were twenty-two with more than 6000 acres, located mostly in 
Central Illinois. However, that implies more consistency in holdings than was 
actually the case. From 1970 to 1974, ten farms were sold comprising approxi- 
mately 2700 acres. Four of these were out-of-state and one was in northwestern 

Chapter 6 Financing the University 

Illinois, which made management more complex, one was sold for a cooling 
lake, and three had undesirable soil characteristics. As implied earlier in the 
description of large gifts, the constituency of the University has directed signifi- 
cant gifts of farmland to it, and the trustees have followed a policy of exercising 
responsible stewardship by upgrading the holdings. There were only a few 
other dispositions, largely isolated small holdings. A sizeable farm in Kane 
County was partially given to the University in 1981, and sold for $3.5 million, 
more than three times its original value a decade later as suburban growth 
occurred west of Chicago. 

All of the farms were operated under the direction of professional farm man- 
agers and a sub-committee of trustees familiar with farming provided over- 
sight. Glenn Kemp, president of the Lexington Bank, was chairman of the farm 
committee until 1970. Reid Tombaugh, a professional farm manager in Pontiac, 
was chairman for ten years, and he was followed for the next five years by 
Wilber Boies, former president of the Gridley bank. In 1985, Richard Vial, a for- 
mer associate of Tombaugh' s, assumed the responsibility. All of these trustees 
and several additional committee members, including James Bicket and Paul 
Allison, visited the farms and consulted frequently with the farm managers. 

Investments in securities — almost exclusively marketable stocks and 
bonds — were the chief emphasis of endowment holdings. They rose from $2.3 
million at market value in 1968 to $35.2 million in 1986. A decision had been 
made by the Investment Committee to retain the services of Stein Roe & 
Farnham to manage the portfolio just before I arrived. They did so for four 


Board Officers 1979: Clifford Schneider '39 (president), William Goebel (sec- 
retary), John Dickinson '34 (vice president), and Hugh Henning (treasurer). 


Chapter 6 Financing the University 

years and, at the time of a change in personnel, we decided to consider other 
management alternatives. After interviewing four managers, we placed the 
larger portion of the portfolio with the First National Bank of Chicago for the 
next eight years. In the meantime, we established a second account with the 
Common Fund in 1972, which had been established by the Ford Foundation to 
manage college endowments the year before. Our initial investment in the 
Common Fund was made from the endowment grant plus interest of $250,000 
made to the University by the Ford Foundation a few years earlier in a general 
distribution to encourage colleges to establish endowment funds. We added to 
each of these two accounts as funds become available. 

A third account was started in 1976 when the $750,000 proceeds of the sale of 
Atlas Spring and Manufacturing Co. become available. Edward B. Rust volun- 
teered the services of Rex James Bates, and we established this third account 
under his management. The life-long experience he brought as an investor 
enabled us to profit fully from the common stock appreciation of the 1980s and 
to avoid investment mistakes others made. His results were favorable com- 
pared to total return on the Standard and Poors 500 stock average and we pro- 
gressively added to it through the years. In 1981, we elected to fold the First 
National Bank of Chicago account into this one, making it the principal endow- 
ment holding of the University. We were fortunate to have Bates' professional 
money-management skills available to us. By 1986, the account he managed 
exceeded $23 million and that of the Common Fund totalled $8 million. 
Although equity performance struggled for a period in the 1970s, we ultimately 
benefitted generously from our heavy endowment commitment to common 

The variety of bequests to a college can make it a collecting place for other 
investments which call for a wide range of investment competencies. The 
University had a "special investment account" arrangement with a national 
accounting firm that had been established in the late 1940s when the tax laws 
gave favorable treatment to investments involving charitable institutions. By 
the late 1960s, it had outlived its rationale and usefulness, so I initiated its termi- 
nation. After a testy meeting with the managing partner, both sides walked 
away from the agreement, thereby ending it. 

Illinois Wesley an' s residual investment asset from the arrangement consisted 
of total ownership of a precision spring company in Chicago, Atlas Spring, 
which had annual sales in excess of $1 million and employed almost a hundred 
persons. We obviously lacked the expertise to oversee such an operation, 
despite having acquired it in 1951 in a boot-strap purchase, using revenue from 
the company to retire debt held by its prior owners. The Investment 
Committee quickly agreed that it ought to be sold, but the decision proved to be 
far easier than accomplishing the sale. Frequent trips to Chicago were required 
by me to oversee its management or attempt its sale. I was often accompanied 
by Allison, Henning, or other Investment Committee members. The only pleas- 
ure I recall from these jaunts was lunch at one of the Scandinavian singing clubs 
then still in operation on the north side of Chicago. 


Chapter 6 Financing the University 

After the third or fourth negotiation for sale fell through, we realized that the 
sale was being thwarted by the incumbent president, who was supposed to be 
working for us. We had to find a new manager, drive the board of directors 
(the Investment Committee) to Chicago for a meeting, discharge the president, 
and reorganize. It was a long day, but we made an unsuccessful appeal to a 
Chicago bank for the fine arts financing at the same time. The new president 
installed was a former U.S. Steel executive, a family friend through a college 
roommate of Nell's, whom we knew was looking for an entrepreneurial oppor- 
tunity. We eventually sold our little company to its new president in 1975. 

Unexpected good fortune does occasionally happen, and it did so on proper- 
ty given to the University by a trustee, Mrs. Mary Hardtner Blackstock of 
Springfield. She had made her first large gift to the University in 1935, and her 
estate left farmland in Barber County, Kansas, to Illinois Wesleyan and several 
other charitable institutions. The farms had been sold in 1963, but the mineral 
rights had been retained. Gas and oil production from three leases provided 
income in excess of $1.5 million in the five years 1981-1985, immediately follow- 
ing the second oil crisis, when prices peaked. We treated it as a windfall return 
of capital and reinvested it in the endowment. (Income in 1990-91 was still 
more than $50,000). 

Mrs. Jessie Moorman made a gift of stock in the privately held Moorman 
Manufacturing Co. of Quincy, engaged in making livestock feed and soybean 
processing. The company has performed well since Wesleyan received the gift, 
providing a total return of 1 1 .4 percent annually. Nevertheless, it required peri- 
odic review. My son Paul, who is an investment analyst, has visited the compa- 
ny with me a number of times to evaluate the holding. 

Miscellaneous urban real estate holdings were sold, including a small hotel 
in Bloomington and a filling station in Gary, Indiana, to concentrate invest- 
ments and optimize supervisory effort. 

The federal government afforded an opportunity for early debt retirement, 
which we took advantage of in 1984 using internal endowment funds. We paid 
off the remaining $2.8 million debt on Ferguson, Munsell, and Dodds residence 
halls plus the Student Center for about half as much, locking in a 12.75 percent 
rate of return over the average maturity of twenty-two years for the funds 
invested. Our ratio of long-term debt to fund balances (corresponding to net 
worth in a business) fell from a high of 24 percent, just after completion of the 
Fine Arts Center in 1973, to 2 percent in 1986. 

Stability of personnel in the Investment Committee enabled us to gain in 
expertise over time. I was the initial author of investment policy statements 
prepared and revised in 1972, 1976, 1981, and 1988 for the Investment 
Committee. They attempted to clarify objectives and assign responsibilities. 
Three trustees- William Goebel, Robert Underwood, and David Wilkins, partic- 
ipated in drafting a statement on Social Responsibility in Investing adopted by 
the trustees in 1985. Because of their increasing complexity, a list of institution- 
al investment relationships was prepared for the Investment Committee annu- 
ally to remind members of the need for surveillance. In 1986 there were four- 


Chapter 6 Financing the University 

teen institutions managing investments for the University valued at more than 
$100,000 each, in addition to those managed directly by the Committee. 
Another annual practice was the comparison of life income and annuity pay- 
ments to cash income received by the endowment, which were consistently 
well under 10 percent. This permitted us to accept properties in exchange for 
annuities or life income arrangements which were beneficial to the University 
even though the investments might not produce enough cash income to meet 
the annual income commitments. 

The results speak for themselves. For the first time in its 130 year existence, 
the University could face the future with an assurance of financial undergird- 
ing. After 1980, Illinois Wesleyan had an endowment valued among the top 10 
percent for colleges with less than 3500 students. 


Chapter 7 Volunteers 

Chapter 7 

Volunteers — Trustees, Methodists, 

Alumni and Friends 

"Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and 
the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever 
be encouraged." 
The Northwest Ordinance, Article 3, 1787 


llinois Wesleyan was established as a joint venture of 
the Central Illinois Methodists and community leaders, and for the first one 
hundred years, the institution was heavily dependent on the organizing skills 
of the church. Volunteer activism is a prominent feature of American society 
and the University's origin and evolution are characteristic of that interest. As 
the years passed, the community and interest in higher education grew, and the 
alumni expanded apace. A volunteer organization needs an effective coterie of 
devoted people and supporters. In Wesleyan' s case the rudiments of these sup- 
port groups were in place in 1968, although they awaited what is called "basic 
training /, in the military, organization and esprit de corps. 

For one hundred years after the first real executive officer was appointed in 
1857, Illinois Wesleyan was headed by a Methodist minister except for a two- 
year period in the late 1930s. All of the trustees were elected by the church until 
1968, when the charter and by-laws were extensively revised, reducing the 
Methodist Conference role to the naming of only one-quarter of the board. My 
tenure began with this new institutional structure, and more or less coincided 
with a more active role of civil authorities in subjecting independent institutions 
of higher education to greater scrutiny and regulation, including the application 
of federal and state labor and civil rights statutes. 

Until 1968, the ministerial contingent on the board had the distinctive posi- 
tion as "official visitors" who met with the trustees and had the exclusive 
authority of nominating the president. After the charter and by-law revision, 
which reduced the board (including visitors) from forty-eight to thirty-nine, we 
sought to perpetuate the use of visitors meeting annually with trustees as a way 
to enlist the expertise and interest of a wider group from the University's con- 
stituencies. This first took the form of several visiting committees dealing with , , ~ 

Chapter 7 Volunteers 

particular components of the University, and later the Board of Visitors was cre- 
ated to meet annually with the trustees. 

When I arrived, there were approximately 10,000 names on the alumni rolls. 
Because of the growth of enrollment, the number increased by roughly 40 per- 
cent during my eighteen-year tenure. By 1986, almost half of the alumni had 
attended Wesleyan in the years I served as president. They have always exhib- 
ited a devoted attachment to the University, and this has become more evident 
as the fortunes of the institution have improved. 

In addition to representation on the Boards of Trustees and Visitors, commu- 
nity business and professional people had been affiliated with the University 
through the Illinois Wesleyan Associates, which prior to 1968 had no fund-rais- 
ing role. Two giving clubs existed for alumni and friends — the Century Club 
had been established for faculty support in 1959 and the President's Club, in 
1967. The Dads' Association, forerunner of Wesleyan Parents, was established 
in 1960. 


"Taking as a starting point 1530, when the Lutheran Church was founded, some 
66 institutions that existed then still exist today in the Western World in recog- 
nizable forms: the Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church, the parliaments of 
Iceland and the Isle of Man, and 62 universities." 

Carnagie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education, Three Thousand 
Futures, 1980 

Legally, the trustees are the university, although students and faculty are 
obviously necessary for it to accomplish its mission. The charter and by-law 
revision just before I arrived placed all thirty-nine trustees on equal footing by 
removing the distinction between trustees and ministerial visitors that had pre- 
viously existed. There are still several constituency distinctions in the election 
process. Nine trustees are elected by the Central Illinois Conference of the 
United Methodist Church, three, by the alumni, and three are ex officio — the 
President, the presiding Bishop of the Conference, and the President of the 
Illinois Wesleyan Associates. The other twenty-four are elected by the Board 
itself as a self-perpetuating body. I served with ninety-seven board members 
and participated in naming four others the year I departed. Only three — 
Schneider, Henning, and Goebel — served the entire eighteen years with me, but 
twenty had served fifteen years or more when they left the board. Most of 
them took membership seriously. The average tenure of the sixty-three who 
left the board while I was there was ten years. 

Approximately half of the trustees were alumni and half were Methodist 
(including the one quarter elected by the Church — two-thirds of whom had to 
be ministers) during my tenure. The constituency requirements of the by-laws 
necessarily complicated the trustee recruitment process, although they probably 


Chapter 7 Volunteers 

Trustees from State Farm 1986: Edward Rust, Jr. '72, James Bates, Roland 
Marston '47, Eckley, and Marvin Bower '45 

served the purpose of keeping significant groups represented. When asked 
what he wanted from a trustee, Henry Wriston, who spent twenty-nine years as 
president of Lawrence College and Brown University responded: "Work, 
wealth, and wisdom, preferably all three, but at least two of the three/ 7 I found 
that to be a useful but over-simplified guide, particularly if the admonition "at 
least two of the three" was insisted upon and the wealth category was relaxed 
to include access to wealth or willingness to approach sources of funds. 

Board attendance in most years approached two-thirds, which I thought less 
than satisfactory when Ed Rust, probably our trustee with the most obligations, 
achieved almost perfect attendance. We were able to get half of the newly elect- 
ed trustees through a one-day orientation session to become familiar with the 
University, something we might have done better had we had more sessions 
and emphasized them with a higher degree of expectation. In 1985, we devel- 
oped a Trustee Handbook to help organize information to enable trustees to 
perform their responsibilities better. Board-building is a tentative process, as 
anyone knows who has engaged in it. Able people attract additional able peo- 

One of the challenges in board-building is the creation of an ambience of 
leadership by the inclusion of recognized people who are willing to work on 
behalf of the institution. During my tenure, six chief executive officers of major 
corporations were members of the Board, including the two most important 
ones domiciled in Central Illinois, State Farm Insurance and Caterpillar. I asked 


Chapter 7 Volunteers 

Edward Rust to join the Board shortly after his son transferred to Wesleyan. 
Following his death fifteen years later, his son and successor, Edward Rust, Jr. 
72, accepted my invitation to become a member of the Board. Three other 
members of the State Farm President's office — Roland Marston '47, Marvin 
Bower '45, and James Bates — also joined the Board, bringing diverse back- 
grounds. William Naumann and I had worked together closely at Caterpillar 
and he joined our Board in 1971. Others with widespread reputations included 
the pharmacologist, Harold Hodge '25, John Cribbet '40, Dean of the University 
of Illinois Law School and later Chancellor of the Urbana campus, Austin 
Fleming, an expert in Illinois probate law, the popular Illinois legislator, John 
Maitland, and Robert Underwood 37, who served twenty-three years on the 
Illinois Supreme Court. 

Seven women served on the Board during my tenure, including five during 
the 1980-83 interval. This was probably not enough relative to the ninety-seven 
total, but it was far more than the earlier token numbers of members. Helen 
Goldsworthy Campbell was the first to achieve a leadership position as chair- 
person of the Development Committee in 1986. 

I was concerned that the average age of trustees was tilted toward the fifties 
and sixties and sought to include several age thirty-five and younger. We elect- 
ed seven younger members, including three still in their twenties — Claire Lodal 
Wilson 71, George Vinyard 71, and Luanne Dole Cloyd 76. Claire Wilson, our 
youngest trustee elected at age twenty-two, served faithfully for nine years 
despite long travel commitments and her responsibility for young children. 
Vinyard became chairman of the Academic Affairs Committee in 1985. 

The four officers of the Board displayed remarkable stability during my 
years — only six individuals occupied the positions. After serving seventeen 
years as a member of the Board, including the last eight as president, Paul 
Allison 35 chose to retire in 1970. He was a doer, not a talker, and one of the 
swiftest moving persons I have ever encountered. I suggested another alum- 
nus, Peoria attorney Clifford Schneider 39, as his replacement, and the nomi- 
nating committee and the Board readily assented. He served the remaining six- 
teen years with me. He was in the center of a three-generation sequence of 
Schneiders at Wesleyan, and a man of wise instincts and great equanimity. 
Addressing the Presidents's Convocation in 1973, he said: 

"To a degree the Board sits in the position of a judge measuring competing 
demands on the resources of the University — competing demands for University 
programs — against each other, and trying to achieve some reasonable balance, 
always in the light of what is best for the greatest number — always in line with 
the University purpose and in line with the Trustee's basic task of holding the 
University in trust...." 
Another alumnus, John Dickinson 34, served as vice president until he 
reached mandatory retirement in 1985. He had served longer than any other 
Board member — twenty-five years — during my tenure, and was a man of 
immense patience and generous judgments. His grandfather had been presi- 
dent of Hedding College, his father was president of Hedding's board when it 


Chapter 7 Volunteers 

Clifford E. Schneider, Board president, 

was merged into Wesleyan, and 
Dickinson was responsible for moving 
the Hedding bell to the Wesleyan cam- 
pus during the 1930s. He was replaced 
as vice president by William Goebel, 
who had served as secretary and legal 
counsel since 1964. Robert Reardon 
became secretary in 1985. (After I retired, 
in 1987, Goebel reverted to secretary and 
Reardon became vice president). Hugh 
Henning was treasurer of the Board dur- 
ing my entire tenure. In that capacity, he 
was also chairman of the business affairs 
committee and the investment commit- 
tee. In 1986, as I was leaving, he was 
elected president of the Board. My 
board associations consequently were 
longest and deepest with the four offi- 
cers, and especially with Goebel and 
Henning, who devoted untold hours on 
behalf of the University. Each will have 
spent roughly three decades as trustees 
and officers before they retire from the 

My prior business responsibilities in pricing had conditioned me to working 
with attorneys prospectively before any question of possible litigation arose, so 
I followed that pattern of prior consultation with Goebel. He was accommodat- 
ing in this respect, and together we avoided any litigation during the period. 
We cannot say what was avoided, but the increasing crescendo of litigation 
engulfing universities and society in general made it obvious that caution was 
in order. Of the 6,574 days I was president, it is not excessive to estimate that 
on more than 2,000 of them I was in telephone contact with Goebel, sometimes 
several times per day. Maybe Goebel was making amends for his great- great- 
grandfather, the Rev. Peter Akers, who declined becoming Wesleyan' s first 
president because the offer did not contain adequate financial support. Like his 
famous ancestor, Goebel exhibited an intense interest in education. In the late 
1970s, he developed and taught a course on law and the liberal arts when the 
University was exploring liberal arts and professional relationships under the 
auspices of the Lilly grant. I could always count on my queries getting expedit- 
ed responses as a result of his devotion to Illinois Wesleyan. 

Henning' s responsibility as chairman of the investment committee involved 
us jointly in charting a course for the endowment, as well as in solving several 
of the sticky problems we inherited — what to do with the precision spring com- 
pany, urban real estate, and charitable gifts of various descriptions. Henning' s 
background and perspective is much broader than often associated with the 
lead partner in a public accounting firm. His principal avocation is reading and 


Chapter 7 Volunteers 

his interests are wide. Of particular value to the University were his skills in 
designing deferred giving approaches because of his knowledge of the tax laws 
and familiarity with business enterprises. Henning was the right choice for 
Board president in 1986. 

In addition to the four officers and the president of the University, the 
Executive Committee of the Board includes the three other Board Committee 
chairmen and a designated representative of the Bishop. Each of the three com- 
mittees had two to four people who served as chairmen: Academic Affairs, 
Scott Anderson, John Cribbet, Robert Reardon, and George Vinyard; Campus 
Life, Dale Pitcher, Wayne Hess, Richard Newhall, and Burt Lancaster; and 
Development, Ray Danielson and Davis Merwin. Since the Board met only 
three times a year, much of its ongoing responsibility was carried by the 
Executive Committee, which met regularly nine times per year. I tried to oper- 
ate on a "no surprises, full disclosure" policy in relation to the Board. I called 
the officers of the Board frequently to discuss sensitive issues when they arose. 
Executive Committee minutes were sent to other trustees immediately follow- 
ing each meeting. For most of the years, I wrote a quarterly letter to trustees 
and friends of the University, timed to arrive between Board meetings. It was 
distributed to Visitors and other people close to the University. 

Trustee expertise in a wide variety of areas was utilized as often as possible 
and frequently proved to be very helpful. Examples of assistance provided by 
trustees in the field of investments were mentioned in Chapter 6. Many 
trustees helped in development or fundraising as mentioned in conjunction 
with large gifts. For example, Loring Merwin approached a prep-school friend, 
the philanthropist Paul Mellon, and the Chauncey and Marion Deering 
McCormick Foundation in the Ten Million Dollar Program and succeeded in 
obtaining significant five and six-figure gifts in each case. His leadership of the 
Fine Arts Visiting Committee probably contributed to several gifts from mem- 
bers of that Committee. William Naumann assisted us in approaching the 
Charles Merrill Trust and the Caterpillar Foundation. A gift from the latter 
foundation put us over the top for the TMP campaign. One of the most inter- 
esting examples of what could be done through persistence was Vernon Butz 
'27L, a Kankakee attorney, who assisted in arranging the Voight farm gift dur- 
ing the Bertholf years. A doctor in Herscher who wished to help southern 
African Americans had left a farm to Rust College in Mississippi. With Butz' 
assistance, his widow, Winifred Wisner, left her estate to Illinois Wesleyan. A 
cousin of Butz', Emma Genseke, left the proceeds from of an estate including a 
wax company to several charitable institutions, among them, Illinois Wesleyan. 

A number of trustees provided important linkages to other volunteer organi- 
zations, including the Visiting Committees, the Board of Visitors, the two capi- 
tal fund campaigns, and the President's Club and other current fund organiza- 
tions. In the Ten Million Dollar Program, Edward Rust framed the recommen- 
dations from the Visiting Committees that became the goals of the campaign 
and Davis Merwin headed the development effort after the death of Ray 
Danielson, who had seen us through the initial year of the campaign. 
Danielson encouraged other trustees in seeking funds for Wesleyan by saying, 

Chapter 7 Volunteers 

"As an insurance salesman, when I get up in the morning I know that nobody is 
waiting to see me." Dave Merwin always approached development with his 
own brand of infectious cheerfulness and commented, "Since Harvard, my own 
alma mater, has an endowment approaching $1 billion, I feel that I might better 
spend my dollars here at Illinois Wesley an where I'll be able to see some of the 
good effects...." I suspect he supported Harvard also, but his help here was sig- 

In the case of the Alumni Campaign for Endowment, Virgil Martin '32, 
retired Chairman of Carson Pirie Scott & Co., served as General Chairman 
while William Naumann and Edward Rust acted as honorary co-chairman. 
Martin was one of our long-serving trustees, who had supported the University 
in many capacities. Helen Goldsworthy Campbell, who knew the Central 
Illinois Conference well, was chairperson for the chapel fund drive. Flora 
Armstrong '43, who had extensive alumni contacts, assumed the leadership of 
the swimming pool drive along with her husband, Victor Armstrong. 

Helen Goldsworthy Campbell was indefatigable in pursuing gifts for the 
chapel, and the breadth of support was attributable to her. The Volunteers for a 
Wesleyan Chapel met frequently and imaginatively from mid-1981 until Evelyn 
Chapel became a reality. More than 500 gifts made it possible. Flo Armstrong 
had earlier headed the Century Club and initiated the successful natatorium 
fund drive in 1984. After moving to Phoenix, she became the principal sponsor 
of Wesleyan alumni meetings in that area. 


"If a nation expects to be ignorant and free, in a state of civilization, it expects 
what never was and never will be." 

Thomas Jefferson, letter advocating the establishment of a college, 1816 

The establishment of visiting committees was an effort to discover and 
widen the constituencies of the University. Not enough had been done to iden- 
tify and connect various people in our constituencies — alumni, Methodists and 
other church members, the community (defined as McLean County, Central 
Illinois, and to some extent all of Illinois), and professional or interest groups 
related to the University's academic programs. Our development consultant, 
John Bolinger, was instrumental in suggesting the use of visiting committees for 
this purpose in 1970 as he was in recommending the "Year of Ree valuation" 
undertaken that same year. Two committees already existed and three more 
were established. They were broadly sprinkled with trustees, former trustees, 
and future trustees to be "discovered," in order to heighten the interaction with 
our official governing board. 

The Science Advisory Committee was organized in 1948 under the joint ini- 
tiative of Harold Hodge, class of 1925, and Wayne Wantland, who headed our 
science division from 1944 to 1971. Hodge was then at his prime as a professor 


Chapter 7 Volunteers 

at the University of Rochester Medical School. Two years earlier, he had been 
one of the scientific observers at the nuclear tests at the Bikini atoll. The com- 
mittee met annually and had a major role in encouraging Wesley an' s science 
capability through the 1950s and 1960s when faculty and facilities were woeful- 
ly deficient. It met until 1980, once under the leadership of George Brown, class 
of 1934, of the Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, who was another 
member of the committee. Hodge's thoughtful assistance to Wesleyan was 
many-sided and continuous. I encountered him for the last time in front of the 
chapel after he had retired for the second time, although I knew from an MIT 
friend that he was working on a lab bench at the Forsyth Dental Laboratories 
near his home in Boston. 

The Women's Committee of the School of Nursing had been created by the 
School Director, Mary Shanks, in 1963 under the leadership of Mrs. Margradell 
Riddle, class of 1918. It functioned into the 1980s to provide community feed- 
back on the School and also to assist in public relations and fundraising. There 
were several doctor's wives and other community leaders among its fifteen 
members. The School Director had pushed for renovation of the ground level 
of Stevenson Hall (the former science building) for the School of Nursing, but as 
discussions continued it became increasingly clear that the School did not need 
additional space and there appeared to be little support for the project. Instead, 
the space was renovated for the psychology department in 1972, which badly 
needed upgraded facilities. 

Perhaps the most active of the visiting committees, the Committee on the 
Liberal Arts College, operated under the chairmanship of Edward B. Rust from 


Chapter 7 Volunteers 

1970 to 1974. The eighteen members of the committee struggled with the aca- 
demic content of the Liberal Arts College curriculum and the financial prob- 
lems faced by such institutions. They recommended some trimming of sails 
and clearly perceived the necessity for levelling enrollment and building the 
endowment. Rust was an accomplished, no nonsense, executive with impecca- 
ble academic credentials as a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Stanford in econom- 
ics. When questioned by an environmentalist on whether his cattle might be 
polluting the creek on his farm, he replied that he was aware of and working on 
the problem, but the cows didn't seem to understand. He was the natural 
choice to meet with the chairmen of the other visiting committees and prepare a 
combined report for all five for presentation to the Board of Trustees. With sev- 
eral similarities in background, we worked easily together on this and other 
undertakings, both for Wesleyan and for State Farm Insurance. His contribu- 
tions to Wesleyan were many, from Commencement speaker to major donor, 
and his extensive connections through the U.S. Chamber of Commerce presi- 
dency and State Farm made him especially helpful. I never asked him for any 
assistance or service he did not provide. 

The chief question for the Visiting Committee on the College of Fine Arts 
was whether or not to proceed on the large construction project outlined in the 
1967 proposal for the Fine Arts Center. There were more than a few dissenters. 
Underlying this question was the future value of the commitment Wesleyan 
had developed in the three Schools up to that time. The commitment to Music 
was the longest and most extensive, although the Art and Drama Schools were 
beginning their third decade. Loring Merwin was the right choice for leading 
this Committee because of his prior interest in the arts (he had mounted a pre- 
World War II exhibit of national significance in Bloomington) and his extensive 
network of friends as publisher of The Pantagraph. The Committee examined 
our facilities and the proposed project thoroughly and interrogated the School 
Directors extensively on programs and accomplishments, including asking for 
lists of outstanding alumni in the arts. The nineteen members of the Committee 
strongly endorsed the building of the Fine Arts Center and removed doubts 
that the project was too ambitious. Merwin did not live to see the Center com- 
pleted, but he gave us an enthusiastic beginning with his leadership. 

The small Athletic Committee, under the chairmanship of Robert Fleming 
'45, assessed needs in the Fieldhouse and Stadium that were eventually ful- 
filled. Perhaps more useful was its role in revealing that a constituency for 
underwriting a new swimming pool did not exist, although the need was clear. 
As a result, the project was deferred for fifteen years. Priorities get established; 
choices must be made. 

A backward look at the Visiting Committees of 1970 and the initial member- 
ship of the later Board of Visitors in 1979 reveals that five of the former 
Committee participants subsequently became trustees and seven members of 
the Visitors also joined the ranks of the trustees. In a very real sense then, the 
participation of Visitors served as a means for uncovering new volunteer lead- 
ership for Wesleyan. In addition, they served as a vehicle for discovering and 
matching interests in the University. Visitors often identified with the sponsor- 

Chapter 7 Volunteers 

ship of various University activities and occasionally made gifts in support of 
specific projects. 

In the late 1970s, we decided to use a generic Board of Visitors rather than 
individual committees, although we continued to employ committees for spe- 
cific tasks such as Investment Advisory, Commission on Church and 
University, and the Chapel Sponsors. Accordingly, beginning in 1979 we invit- 
ed 165 people to join our Board of Visitors, which met annually my last seven 
years at Wesleyan. Eleven former trustees were among its members as well as 
many trustees. Case statements, questionnaires, and presentations were used to 
generate feedback on questions of concern to the University. The chapel and 
swimming pool were openly broached initially at the first meeting. 
Presentations were successively made at subsequent meetings by faculty divi- 
sion and school directors, students, and young alumni, with opportunity for 
questions and discussion. Other meetings featured the announcement of the 
ACE campaign, Jaroslav Pelikan, the prior year's Jefferson lecturer, as the 
chapel dedication speaker, and Dean Wendell Hess reporting on the Task Force 
on 1990. 

My friend, William Naumann, served as chairman of the Board of Visitors. 
He had just retired as Chairman of the Board at Caterpillar. Naumann was from 
Pekin, joined Caterpillar as an apprentice, and served the company for 55 years. 
Consequently, he was widely known in Illinois and had extensive business rela- 
tionships. Although he was a Roman Catholic, he took an active interest in 
Wesleyan. Along with Bernard E. Wall 30, he helped to dispel the barriers that 
had once stood between the University and the Roman Catholic community. 


"Uniting knowledge and vital piety." 
John Wesley 

"The broad backed hippopotamus 
Rests on his belly in the mud; 
Although he seems so firm to us 
He is merely flesh and blood" 

T.S. Elliot 1920 

Methodists were in fact Illinois Wesleyan' s first constituency. There were no 
alumni and the community, while it keenly wanted a college, could not get it 
going without the spiritual dedication and organizing zeal of the Methodists. 
Illinois Wesleyan originated as a joint venture of the church and community 
leaders and was chartered by the State of Illinois, yet it was completely con- 
trolled from 1854 until 1968 by the Central Illinois Conference and its two pre- 
decessor conferences. The church tie or relationship is "official," but like other 
institutions the connection to church people is amorphous. To some it is close 


Chapter 7 Volunteers 

and cherished, to others the link is wholly volitionary. Moreover, religious life 
was changing in the decades I was at Wesley an and the relationship between 
church people and affiliated institutions was undergoing modification at the 
same time. 

The 1968 change in the charter and by-laws — from total control of trustee 
membership by the Methodist Conference to minority control — stemmed pri- 
marily from adjustment to reality. Fear of civil authority adversely affecting 
denominational colleges, on the one hand, and termination of excessive denom- 
inational power, on the other, possibly lurked in the minds of some involved. I 
had no part in it, other than to urge the completion of the task which Lloyd 
Bertholf had set in motion in 1966. Bertholf was the most likely person to carry 
this through for he had excellent relations with the Central Illinois Conference 
and had been instrumental in arranging a rent-free lease for the Conference 
office building site on the campus a few years earlier. The transition occurred 
without incident simultaneous with my arrival. This was a significant accom- 
plishment by the Bertholf administration because such changes are often 
accompanied by divisive dialogue, which was avoided in this case. 

The area that encompasses the Central Illinois Conference had a stable popu- 
lation of almost 2.5 million in the middle third of Illinois stretching from Moline 
to within 20 miles of St. Louis and from Kankakee to the county adjacent to 
Terre Haute, Indiana. United Methodist churches claimed about 170,000 mem- 
bers, or 7 percent of the population, and membership was declining. The 
Conference was under the leadership of a bishop, who also had the responsibil- 
ity for a smaller conference in southern Illinois. It was divided administratively 
into eight areas under as many district superintendents. I served with three 
bishops — Lance Webb and Leroy Hodapp, each for eight years, and Woodie 
White for his first two years in Illinois. Although each was an ex officio member 
of our Board of Trustees, participation in meetings was rare because of the press 
of other responsibilities. Among the other six ministers on the Board, we had a 
representation of Conference Council (staff) directors, district superintendents 
and church pastors, who served ably and well in a variety of trustee assign- 
ments. A significant number of the Conference ministers were Wesleyan alum- 
ni, and they often devoted themselves to referring prospective students to the 
University and serving it in other ways. 

The Church had extensive commitments to a wide range of institutions — 
hospitals, retirement homes, children's treatment and care facilities, and cam- 
pus foundations at the public universities, in addition to three higher educa- 
tional institutions. Consequently, the time and funds available for Illinois 
Wesleyan were circumscribed, and financial support rose slowly. Assistance 
flowed in both directions. The University made grants of as much as half tuition 
to children of United Methodist ministers based on need. By the 1980s, the 
amount of these grants was exceeding Conference assistance to the University. 

The declining proportion of United Methodist students in Wesleyan' s enroll- 
ment can hardly be laid at the feet of the Conference clergy or the effort of the 
University to attract them. Rather, the connection appears to lie in declining 
Sunday school attendance and participation in youth groups, associated with , 9 ~ 

Chapter 7 Volunteers 

societal developments that had their origin in the 1960s youth rebellion and did 
not end as it subsided. All four members of the religion department faculty — 
Geoffrey Story, Jerry Stone, William L. White, and James Whitehurst — were 
United Methodist ministers and members of the Central Illinois Conference. 

We continued to have an interest in pre-seminary study and other church- 
related professional opportunities, which made Illinois Wesleyan a continuing 
presence to the leading theological schools. Several students each year moved 
on to seminaries. Craig Hill, Class of 1978, became the first American and the 
first Methodist to serve as chaplain of Christ Church at Oxford, where John 
Wesley had attended college. Other manifestations of the church relationship 
are evident in the Collegiate Choir and other choral groups, whose repertoire is 
primarily church music, the sacred music degree, and the outstanding organ 
program. Lee Short took the initiative in 1969 in starting the annual Church 
Music Conference for musicians in the region. David Gehrenbeck assumed 
leadership of the event a few years later and it has continued for twenty-four 
years. In the tenth year a program featuring Robert Baker, Class of 1938, head of 
the sacred music program at Yale, attracted 400 attendees. Professor Marilyn 
Keiser '63 of Indiana University has returned to Wesleyan periodically for 
organ recitals. 

In 1970, 1 was invited by Myron Wicke, head of the Division of Higher 
Education of the national church in Nashville, to participate as one of eight 
regional college presidents in planning efforts to enhance the institutions 
through their church ties. I served on that committee for three years. In 1974 
I was elected to the presidency of the National Association of Schools and 
Colleges of the United Methodist Church, made up of the more than one hun- 
dred schools, colleges and universities affiliated with the church. I pushed for 
incorporation of the Association so that it might play a more active role in help- 
ing solve some of the problems facing church-related institutions. I was elected 
in 1973 to the first of two four-year terms on the University Senate of the nation- 
al church, responsible for the official status of educational institutions related to 
the church. This group attempted to counsel institutions undergoing academic 
or governance problems. 

A few institutions affiliated with the church did find themselves severely 
challenged in the courts. In order to be dismissed from litigation on appeal to 
the Supreme Court of the United States in 1974, Western Maryland College, a 
United Methodist institution, signed stipulations agreeing to remove two cross- 
es from its chapel, to "neither describe itself nor hold itself out as being a 
church-related college/ 7 and to "neither sponsor nor conduct any religious ser- 
vices," among others. Needless to say, shock waves went through the ranks of 
church-related institutions. Whether or not it was necessary for Western 
Maryland to go to this extent to extricate itself is debatable, but it was done. 

Partly in response to this and similar concerns, Bishop Hodapp and I were 
among about forty people attending a consultation on legal questions and 
church colleges called in 1978 by the Board of Higher Education and Ministry of 
the church. About the same time, the Board began publishing Lex Collegii, a 
, ?4 legal newsletter for independent higher education. In another endeavor involv- 

Chapter 7 Volunteers 

ing several of the same people, I participated the following two years in the 
Center for Constitutional Studies at Notre Dame University. 

In order to respond to church interest in higher education and to tell the 
Wesleyan story as often as possible, I accepted practically all invitations to 
speak in United Methodist churches. My records indicate that I gave twenty- 
five talks in churches, mostly from the pulpit in seventeen locations. I had done 
enough of this before joining Wesleyan to be somewhat prepared, and I wel- 
comed the opportunity to elaborate the mutual interests of church and college 
in the preparation of young people. 


"Our college cause will be known to our children's children." 

Daniel Webster, letter following the U.S. Supreme Court decision, 

Dartmouth College case, 1819 

As a result of past and prospective enrollment patterns, the alumni — those 
who graduated or attended long enough to want to be identified with 
Wesleyan — will continue to grow into the next century. Keeping up with the 
one in five Americans who change addresses every year is a problem with 
which every college must deal. Wesley an' s problem was not made easier by the 
absence of an alumni directory for forty-two years until we undertook the task 
in 1971. With the availability of computer technology, we established publica- 
tion on a five-year interval beginning in 1978. As a consequence of the three 
directories published by 1983, we were able to improve communication with 
former students and encourage a two-way information flow. 

Almost half of alumni lived in Illinois, and the others were widely dispersed 
geographically. The Chicago area, Bloomington-Normal, and the Los Angeles 
area, ranked in that order, contained about a quarter of the total. Similarly, con- 
centration by state outside Illinois was heaviest in California, Florida, Texas, 
and New York, in that order and in the four contiguous states of Wisconsin, 
Indiana, Missouri, and Iowa. Together, these eight states accounted for almost a 
quarter of the total. Because of the widespread distribution, gatherings were not 
easy to arrange, although a small college environment creates many ties and 
Wesleyan alumni are exceedingly loyal. 

Two illustrations of this loyalty show the dimensions of the relationship in 
geographic and temporal terms. During the chapel campaign, an unsolicited 
gift of $5,000 was received from the Rev. E.E. Sing Lau '24, retired minister of 
the Kampung Kapor Methodist Church in Singapore. About two years earlier, 
Professor Tsing Lai Lau of the University of California (Davis) dropped by 
unannounced to make a $10,000 donation in memory of his deceased wife, who 
had received scholarship assistance to attend Wesleyan for a year in the 1930s. 

Alumni leadership was always forthcoming for the Alumni Council, the 
alumni fund, class chairmen, the Century Club, and phonothons. With organi- 
zation and assistance from these groups, financial assistance from the alumni 


Chapter 7 Volunteers 

grew rapidly and constituted the most dynamic part of the current fund. As 
mentioned in the previous chapter, alumni gifts almost doubled every five 
years, rising at an average rate of 14.6 percent annually. This degree of support, 
reflecting both increasing generosity and wider participation, enabled the 
University to plan its budgets with greater confidence. 

Obviously, the orchestration of arrangements for fundraising required fore- 
thought and effort by the staff. Early in my tenure, we attended an alumni 
meeting in Danville equipped with the usual brief comments and slide presen- 
tation. A recently retired staff member went along to show us how to do it. At 
the end of the meal, he passed a cigar-box around and asked people to drop in 
the price of the meal and "perhaps a little more for Wesleyan" with a nervous 
chuckle. He then got people on their feet to reminisce about — whatever. One 
woman talked about her cat, and two others got into a discussion as to the room 
number in which they had a class together. They did agree on the building. 
First, I realized there would not be time for both slides and a brief talk; then, it 
became apparent that there would not be time for either one. On the way home, 
Nell and I decided that some things ought to change. 

As we became acquainted with more and more of the alumni, we grew to 
appreciate the varied qualities circumscribed by the Wesleyan experience. 
Nowhere was this more evident than in the fifty year class reunions, where pre- 
tense and competition no longer existed because the record was already writ- 
ten. The class of 1925 prepared extensively for their own reunion, and more 
than half of those living attended. That stirred us to greater action. The 1925 
class had included two men who became medical school faculty, Harold Hodge 


Chapter 7 Volunteers 

(Rochester) and David K. Miller (Buffalo); Wesleyan' s first Rhodes Scholar, 
Rueben Borsch, an attorney; a Methodist minister, R. Walker Butler; and several 
wives of college and university faculty members. 

We gradually perfected a dinner party for the fifty year class including the 
usual accoutrements, along with a short talk I prepared using selected recollec- 
tions from the Argus of things that happened when they were undergraduates. 
There was a Wesley an bus that always broke down during the 1930s, the peren- 
nial Argus editorials deploring student behavior in weekly chapel, and the visits 
of Spencer Tracy, John Philip Sousa, Clarence Darrow, Carl Sandburg, and 
Ernest Fremont Tittle. Each year a different story was relevant, such as the 
future Chief Justice of the Illinois Supreme Court, Robert Underwood '37, argu- 
ing for the affirmative in 1936 on the question: "Resolved that Congress should 
be empowered to override decisions of the Supreme Court declaring acts of 
Congress unconstitutional." 

Family traditions are strong at Wesleyan. While I served, six Simkins chil- 
dren from Pennsylvania graduated from IWU: Jo (Lis) '15, a general surgeon; 
Joe '11, an insurance agent; Janet (Shafer) '78, a homemaker; James '81, an 
industrial engineer; Jon '83, an insurance claims examiner; and Joy (Bischoff) 
'86, a nurse. Two are married to Wesleyan alumni. Each year there were many 
second, third, and fourth generation students, and roughly one-fifth of the stu- 
dents reported relatives having attended Wesleyan. Also, about one-fifth of 
Wesleyan alumni are married to other alumni. 

In 1972, the Distinguished Alumni Award was revamped and restricted to 
one per year, rather than multiple awards as in earlier years, in order to 
enhance the recognition. The following year awards were established for 
Loyalty and for the Outstanding Young Alumnus, later named for Robert M. 
Montgomery '61, who had been a Student Senate president and alumni director 
and was later killed in an auto accident. Together, these awards enabled the 
University community to focus on different aspects of the achievements and 
contributions of its alumni. Fifty-one honorary degrees were awarded during 
my tenure, twenty-two to alumni, providing another means by which the 
University recognized its graduates. 


"Founded in the faith that men are ennobled by understanding, dedicated to the 
advancement of learning and the search for truth, devoted to the instruction of 
youth and the welfare of the state." 

The University of Minnesota, inscription on Cyrus Northrop 
Memorial Auditorium 

Bloomington-Normal provided a supportive, stable, warm, and growing 
environment for an improving micro-university. Gradually through the two 


Chapter 7 Volunteers 

decades, I saw the patronizing relationship, in all its positive and negative con- 
texts, change to one of genuine pride in a local institution's achievements and 
recognition. The combination of insurance, agricultural, manufacturing, and 
transportation interests were broad for a small city and conducive to a develop- 
ing educational center. The founding Fells, Funks, and Da vises were followed 
in my generation by the encouragement of the Merwins and Rusts. Co-exis- 
tence with a large public university was mostly positive, although there were 
occasions when I understood how the Canadians felt about sharing a continent 
with an elephant. While devoid of significant growth, Illinois, too, had its 
advantages: its eleven million people, the proximity of Chicago, and the solid 
support for a dual system of public and independent higher education. 

The 1968 by-law revision provided for the head of the Illinois Wesleyan 
Associates, the business and professional people of Bloomington-Normal, to be 
an ex officio member of the Board of Trustees. It remained, however, necessary 
to convert the group, which had been formed in 1953 with Adlai H. Rust and 
Clarence Heyl as co-chairmen, from a friend-raising also to a fund-raising or- 
ganization. That was not hard to accomplish once the message was delivered 
with some subtlety that an independent college needed financial support from 
those in the community capable of providing it. People need to be reminded 
and asked. Luckily, our first luncheon speaker was the astronaut, Frank 
Borman. We got off to a good start, and subsequent speakers continued to pro- 
vide attractive programs. Seven trustees served in this capacity during the eigh- 
teen years, each with his own unique contribution to board building and pro- 
gram assistance. 

The Century Club and the President's Club proved to be active means of 
finding friends and support within the community and the alumni. The 
Century Club had been organized early in Lloyd Bertholf's administration and 
offered an attractive connection between faculty support and the award ban- 
quet each year honoring an outstanding faculty member. Attendance grew each 
year as genuine interest in the award winner's presentation attracted an 
expanding group of returning alumni and friends to participate in what became 
a unique annual experience for three decades. Membership increased rapidly 
with enthusiasm generated by the club president, always an alum, and a board 
of diverse people. 

The initial effort in the case of the President's Club was to enroll as many as 
possible of the trustees and associates who were capable of making an annual 
$1000 gift. A board and more formal organization awaited the leadership of 
Bernard E. Wall in 1973. This group included a large segment of trustees and 
philanthropic leadership, and we made a practice of including it along with 
others in significant events in which they might have an interest as well as pro- 
viding them with a sampling of books and artistic endeavors by Wesleyan fac- 
ulty. A dinner and theatre party each summer became the fixed agenda for the 
Club. Harriett Rust assumed the presidency of the Club soon after I retired and 
provided enthusiastic leadership for its continuing expansion. 


Chapter 7 Volunteers 

The Wesleyan Parents grew rather naturally out of the former Dads' 
Association in 1972. Several parents from each class are added annually, usual- 
ly but not always couples, and some are retained on the board after their chil- 
dren's graduation to maintain contact with those still interested in assisting the 
University. Involvement of the mothers as well as the fathers improved the 
functioning of the board and broadened the input and feedback from that 
source. Contrary to the practice at many institutions of discouraging or not car- 
ing about parental links, we encouraged visits and contacts as a help in bridg- 
ing the transition to greater independence. As parents ourselves of children 
attending college during twelve of our eighteen years at Wesleyan, Nell and I 
valued the family connections with Wesleyan parents and openly cultivated 
them. Often they served as our best entree to other prospective Wesleyan stu- 
dents and a valuable academic resource in addition to pocketbook support. If 
families do not feel rewarded for making the financial sacrifice to send a child 
to an independent college, its degrees of difficulty are increased. 

Another useful volunteer group that functioned from 1976 into the early 
1980s was the Estate Planning Counselors. Wesleyan had developed a signifi- 
cant dependence on deferred gift techniques, perhaps because of its agricultural 
ties. Austin Fleming, a Northern Trust Co. attorney informally recognized as 
the dean of the Illinois probate bar, assumed leadership of the organization. 
Short in stature but long in reputation, his first presentation was before several 
hundred interested parties in the Main Lounge following the passage of the Tax 
Reform Act of 1976. Looking out at the crowd before introducing him, an officer 
of the board commented to me, "There are lots of acres out there." Prior to his 
death in early 1979, he and David K. Carlson, a tax accountant and partner with 
Arthur Andersen & Co., made presentations on our behalf in Peoria, 
Springfield, Kankakee, and Chicago as well as Bloomington again. They also 
wrote several pamphlets for us on gift techniques and taxes. Bernard T. Wall, 
then a vice president and trust officer of the First National Bank of Chicago, 
became chairman of the Counselors following Fleming and held joint sessions 
with Carlson in Bloomington, Chicago, Moline, and Champaign-Urbana. 
Through the efforts of these individuals and other professionals who worked 
with them, Illinois Wesleyan developed an expertise and reputation in the 
design of deferred giving techniques. 


Chapter 8 "His Almost Chosen People" 

Chapter 8 
"His Almost Chosen People" 

A. Lincoln, Address to the New Jersey Senate, Trenton, February 21, 1861 


his memoir began with a sentence from Lincoln's first 
political speech asking his fellow citizens to support him for the Illinois 
Legislature. In it, the man who had little formal education affirms his commit- 
ment to education. The title of this final chapter is a phrase from one of his 
addresses en route to Washington to assume leadership of a disintegrating 
country. In it, he was trying to make the connection between the Revolutionary 
struggle in New Jersey and the effort to perpetuate the "Union, the 
Constitution, and the liberties of the people" that he was undertaking "if I shall 
be an humble instrument in the hands of the Almighty, and of this, his almost 
chosen people..." I chose it as the title for my remarks in the Last Lecture Series 
sponsored by the Student Senate in 1986. 

In what sense have Americans in fact been chosen people and to what extent 
has the dream been eroded? We are blessed, it seems to me, by many opportu- 
nities not shared by others and these opportunities are available in particular to 
college students and faculty, especially those of us fortunate to find ourselves in 
institutions like Illinois Wesleyan. We are not chosen people, only almost cho- 
sen — that is enough for most of us. 

Lincoln was unquestionably Illinois' greatest contribution to the unfolding 
American saga. His connections to Bloomington and Illinois Wesleyan people 
are fascinating to pursue. More than a hundred years later, contemporary polit- 
ical leaders have their own individual relationships to the institution. During 
one of his primary campaigns, Ronald Reagan recalled to me the strength and 
size of the Wesleyan line when he played center on the Eureka College football 
team. Mrs. Elizabeth Ives, Adlai Stevenson's sister and keeper of the Stevenson 
tradition, once referred to Illinois Wesleyan as "that little Republican college." 
Our platform was host to Governors Richard Ogilvie, Daniel Walker, and James 

Chapter 8 "His Almost Chosen People' 

Thompson; Senators Paul Simon 
(then Lieutenant Governor), Adlai 
Stevenson III, and Charles Percy; 
and Congressmen Edward Madigan 
and Robert Michel. Michel and I 
attended Peoria High School togeth- 
er and he was my last 
Commencement speaker in 1986. 

During the 1978 Fine Arts Festival 
featuring American film, director 
Frank Capra and writer Larry 
McMurtry were the principal speak- 
ers. Several of Capra's films were 
shown — "It Happened One Night/' 
"You Can't Take It With You," and 
"Mr. Smith Goes to Washington." 
He stayed several days and was 
lionized by students, which he thor- 
oughly enjoyed. McMurtry talked 
about "The Last Picture Show" and 
the problems with buzzards while 
making "Hud" (based on his novel, 
Horseman Pass By). Although his 
visit preceded his famous cattle 

drive novel, Lonesome Dove, he brought the tales of the Southwest to our stu- 
dents and faculty, who could not be untouched by that tradition. As a matter of 
fact, we had a number of escapees from the Southwestern locale of McMurtry' s 
"The Last Picture Show" on the faculty at the time — Bob Donalson, Wendell 
Hess, Sammy Scifres, and Jerry Stone. Whether the pendulum swung from the 
political scene to the fields of American literature and the arts, a sampling was 
to be found on the Illinois Wesley an agenda. 

If not already apparent, I wish to make explicit my respect for tradition in the 
university. An institution's image and curriculum cannot be wrenched around 
and quickly altered without damaging its identification and ability to function. 
Unless an institution is dysfunctional, which Wesleyan was not, evolution 
rather than sudden shifts is a more rational course. Examples of IWU distinc- 
tion included the Methodist heritage, the Music School, the emerging accom- 
plishments in art and drama, and the premedical and science tradition. 
Borrowing a title from Russell Baker, writer for the Baltimore Sun and The New 
York Times, the first section of this chapter provides several illustrations of the 
Wesleyan tradition in operation. Next, my heavy reliance on Nell and our chil- 
dren is recounted. And finally, this account concludes with several personal 
observations, including a number of collateral activities while engaged in the 


Chapter 8 "His Almost Chosen People" 



"Life must be lived forward; it can only be understood backwards." 
Soren Kierkegaard, Stages on Life's Way, 1845 

There are many examples of student, faculty, and university accomplishment 
in a successfully functioning educational institution — regrettably only a few can 
be mentioned here. I have chosen five illustrations: (1) the Fine Arts Center 
dedication, (2) a cooperative faculty project, the Greenman diary, (3) my tenth 
year President's Convocation celebrating the institution and its traditions, (4) 
the Chapel dedication series, with the University's past and future on display, 
and (5) the Freshmen Summer Orientation sessions — a score of happy beginnings. 

While we were still struggling to arrange financing for the Fine Arts Center 
in 1971, the faculty invited me to participate in the Faculty Colloquium series 
and I chose as my topic 'The Economics of the Fine Arts in Contemporary 
America." In reviewing the economic situation of the arts in America, both his- 
torically and where they were tending, I called attention to the role universities 
were increasingly playing as a home for artistic expression and performance. 
Two years later the Alice Millar Center for the Fine Arts was a reality and the 
dedication occurred on March 18, 1973, in conjunction with a performance by 
our choirs and orchestra of Ernest Bloch's "Sacred Service," the first large scale 
work written for Jewish worship forty years before. Bloch was a Swiss compos- 
er who spent almost half of his long and productive life in the United States. It 
was an ambitious undertaking with David Nott as cantor and a local oral sur- 
geon, Dr. Theodore Century, as recitant. The Bloomington rabbi, Jon Konheim, 
furnished program notes. The ceremony occurred twenty-five years after the 
establishment of the Fine Arts College. Although facilities do not make a viable 
college, for more than two decades, faculty and students have had the best of 
studio and performance areas in which to perfect their abilities. Somewhere in 
the eternal ether, a performance of "Sacred Service" reverberates because a col- 
lege was willing to try. 

A month earlier the new Merwin Gallery opened featuring an alumni art 
exhibition with a quarter of the Art School graduates represented. Ironically, 
Arthur Kopit's "Indians" was in production by the Drama School during the 
week of the occupation at Wounded Knee — its closing scene takes place at 
Wounded Knee. Kopit was in attendance for the Fine Arts Festival and offered 
comments at the end of the performance. 

Nothing was more fortuitous and fascinating during my decades at 
Wesleyan than the discovery and editing of a Revolutionary War journal by 
Professors Robert Bray (American Literature) and Paul Bushnell (American 
History). Actually, two other faculty members also played essential roles in the 
project. Bunyan Andrew, who was head of the history department, knew the 
owner of the diary, a direct descendent of its author, and had seen it years 
before. In 1969, the year before he died, he approached Bushnell about his pos- 

Chapter 8 "His Almost Chosen People" 

sible interest in it. The owner, Mrs. Edwin Lederer, was the great-great-great- 
granddaughter of Jeremiah Greenman, who served with the Continental Army 
from 1775 to 1783. The other faculty member was Jerry Israel, subsequent histo- 
ry department head, who provided encouragement, garnered the funding, and 
found a publisher. 

Greenman was a seventeen-year-old from Rhode Island when the war 
began. He was on the ill-fated march to Quebec with Benedict Arnold and rose 
to the rank of Regimental Adjutant. He was twice captured and three times 
wounded. He had served on occasion as a personal guard to George 
Washington and was present at the execution of the British spy, Major John 
Andrae. The diary ran to 653 pages and was carried to Illinois by his widow 
and two sons, who migrated to the Bloomington area. Mrs. Lederer inherited 
the manuscript and lived just a half block from the Wesleyan campus. 

The project came to fruition at the time of the Bicentennial. Bray and 
Bushnell spoke at our Founders Convocation in 1976, and as the work pro- 
gressed they provided a captivating evening at an IWU League dinner where 
they showed slides and commented on aspects of the work, such as the task of 
authenticating a two-hundred-year-old document. There were interesting side- 
bar stories on the Greenman family — his son built the first house in 
Bloomington — and on Greenman' s subsequent life. After his success as an offi- 
cer in the Revolution, he went to sea for twenty years and became a ship cap- 
tain, but the Napoleonic wars so disrupted American shipping that he had to 
give it up. He later moved to Ohio to claim his veteran's land rights, but some- 
how ended up on a hilly farm that provided inadequate support for his family. 
He died there in 1828, and his family migrated to Illinois almost immediately. 
The project created an intriguing tie between the community, the University 
faculty, and American history. 

At the instigation of Dean Wendell Hess, aided by a Committee of Ten, the 
1978 President's Convocation became an occasion to recognize the tenth 
anniversary of my presidency. The compliment was appreciated and it is 
described here because it illustrates Wesleyan at its ceremonial best. The Jazz 
Combo performed under the direction of Tom Streeter, and a mixed chorus 
sang a new anthem composed by faculty member Bedford Watkins, who had 
composed the Inaugural Fanfare ten years earlier. Hess presided, Jerry Stone 
made remarks on behalf of the faculty, Mark Sheldon, who participated as a 
student in the inaugural, returned from his position with the United Methodist 
Church at the United Nations to offer comments, and Catherine Aumack, 
President of the Student Senate, represented the student body. 

Speaking for the trustees, William Goebel announced the Presidential 
Scholars program to honor roughly one percent of entering freshmen. It was 
especially pleasing for Bishop Leroy Hodapp to be present for the Invocation, 
and for President Emeritus Lloyd Bertholf to give the Benediction. He also car- 
ried the University mace, which had been designed by an Art School faculty 
member, Anthony Vestuto, and first used at the inaugural. Its staff was made 
from walnut salvaged from the first building on the campus, Old North. The 


Chapter 8 "His Almost Chosen People" 

head is shaped like the cupola of Old North and contains a symbolic bell repre- 
senting the Hedding Bell, a campus landmark. A picture of the Hedding Bell 
was used to accompany the introductory page of the annual report for thirteen 

My remarks on that occasion were entitled 'Through a Glass, Darkly/' bor- 
rowing from Paul's encouraging Letter to the Corinthians. Some of the major 
problems of the last sixty-five years were sketched, beginning with the year 
1968 and looking back to the World Wars and the Holocaust to explore for 
antecedents and reflections in the arts and literature. I urged students to devel- 
op a sense of history, to employ rational thought, to exercise self restraint, and 
to cultivate hope, the courage to try — all topics I visited on other occasions. 
Jerry Bidle's Visual Chronicle of the decade at Wesley an added a lighter touch 
to the program, as did alumnus and trustee John Cribbit's remarks at the lunch- 
eon (he was then Dean of the University of Illinois College of Law). 

The chapel dedication presented a different set of challenges and opportuni- 
ties. Inasmuch as the seating capacity was limited to approximately 250 people 
and the new facility had a number of different groups who would find it of 
interest, we designed a series of events. Accordingly, Evelyn Chapel was conse- 
crated on May 5, 1984, with the Board of Trustees, donors, faculty and interest- 
ed students in attendance. Rather than seek a "fc>ig name" speaker for this 
event, we invited three young alumni from the past decade to make brief state- 
ments. We thought that youth and enthusiasm were a fair trade for fame. They 
were the Rev. Craig Hill '78, who was soon to leave for graduate study at 
Oxford, Dr. Rebecca Sherrick 75, then Assistant Professor of History at Carroll 
College, and the Rev. Scott Carlson '74, a Central Illinois Conference minister 
serving in Momence. They did not disappoint us. 

The first student chapel service in the fall served as the dedication service for 
this important function, and for this event Chaplain White secured the services 
of the Rev. Peter Gomes, Minister of the Memorial Church at Harvard 
University. On his return to his pulpit at Harvard, Gomes praised the trustees 
of Illinois Wesleyan for building the chapel by saying: 

"ft is not an extra auditorium or concert hall, it is not intended simply as a mon- 
ument to the vanity of its donors or the ambitions of its clergy; it is meant in a 
secular age to remind believer and unbeliever alike of the presence of God, ^a seri- 
ous house on serious earth.'" 

Three organ recitals (the third one repeated twice) introducing the new 
Cassavant organ were included in the dedicatory series, and Professor 
Gehrenbeck added a fourth for returning alumni in May 1985. Professor 
Marilyn Keiser of Indiana University appeared in conjunction with the 
Sixteenth Annual Church Music Conference. Gehrenbeck was the recitalist for 
the others, and at the November double dedicatory service, he played Widor's 
Fifth Symphony in its entirety along with works by Bach and others. Bedford 
Watkins accommodated us again with the composition of a hymn, "On this day 
of dedication," used in all of the services, and alumnus Dale Thomas Rogers 
provided "Three Versets for Evelyn Chapel" used in the November programs. 

Chapter 8 "His Almost Chosen People" 

Professor Jaroslav Pelikan of Yale spoke at the Board of Visitors dedication 
on "The Melody of Theology: The Scholarly Significance of the Chapel/' He 
had been the Jefferson lecturer for the National Endowment for the Humanities 
the year before and was renowned for his work in church history, including his 
popular book The Riddle of Roman Catholicism. He concluded his talk with the 
following words: 

"Here in this chapel. ..all of us together can find the ^beginning of wisdom ...which 
limits and therefore has learned to listen to the truth of God from all the sources 
that God chooses to employ. We who have lived our entire lives in the University 
have a unique opportunity to experience many of those sources and thus to seek 
what the New Testament calls a ^reasonable worship! Within the time limits of 
this talk I have boxed the academic compass of the Humanities, the Social 
Sciences, and the Natural Sciences in order to suggest that this Chapel, far from 
being a museum of lost causes and forgotten beliefs, can be a resource not only for 
the life of prayer and the life of service, but also for the life of scholarship. Tor the 
first and greatest commandment was, and still is: ^Thou Shalt love the Lord thy 
God with all they heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind." 

Our final event in the chapel dedication series was a Bicentennial Christmas 
Conference Vesper Service on December 23, 1984, on the eve of the 200th 
anniversary of the Christmas Conference which founded the United Methodist 
Church. Chaplain William White followed a service drafted for Methodists in 
North America by John Wesley in 1784, David Gehrenbeck and my daughter 
Rebecca provided organ and harp music, and I told the story of the Christmas 

Bicentennial Christmas Conference Vesper, Evelyn Chapel, 
December 23, 1984 


Chapter 8 "His Almost Chosen People" 

Francis Asbury was the prevailing figure by Wesley's appointment at the 
Conference and also in the early decades of American Methodism. Asbury 
made his first trip west of the Alleghenies within two years of the Christmas 
Conference, and in 1806 in Kentucky, he ordained Peter Cartwright as a minis- 
ter. Six years later Asbury made him a presiding elder (now a district superin- 
tendent). Cartwright subsequently moved to Illinois to "get entirely clear of the 
evil of slavery." Here, in 1850, he was the first to sign the agreement establish- 
ing Illinois Wesleyan University. 

Our social science librarian and archivist, Robert W. Frizzell, prepared an 
exhibit of forty-one items entitled "Illinois Wesleyan and the Church" gathered 
from across the country. The exhibit was displayed during the Fall of 1984. It 
included such memorabilia as the minutes of the Christmas Conference and 
other conferences during the first two decades of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church published by John Dickins, participant in the Christmas Conference 
and the progenitor of the Methodist Publishing House; letters and photographs 
of alumnus Bishop Joseph Hartzell; writings of early faculty member Jennie 
Fowler Willing; and papers relating to Presidents William E. Shaw, Harry 
Wright McPherson, Merrill J. Holmes, and Lloyd M. Bertholf . In the Spring 
Term, four faculty members — Timothy J. Garvey, Robert W. Frizzell, Jerry 
Stone, and William L. White — joined me in mounting an exhibit of "College 
Chapels in America." Photographs and explanations of twenty-four chapels 
were shown to illustrate some of the best examples of campus architecture. 

One of the most enjoyable aspects of my responsibilities at Wesleyan was the 
summer orientation sessions for entering students. We saw these occasions as 
important opportunities and tried to get as many students and parents into 
them as possible. Participation increased in the five summer sessions. Although 
they were repetitious like a Broadway play, we were able to tune them as we 
went along. The students are eager and receptive, and it gave us an opportuni- 
ty to allay many apprehensions. We billed orientation as a mini-vacation for 
parents to encourage their attendance and tied in a theatre performance to dis- 
play that aspect of our program as well as to offer enjoyment. We were able to 
accomplish all testing, registration, and resolve remaining questions at these 
two-day events. 

My own participation was to talk at the opening session and join the picnic 
meal in the evening to meet as many entering students and parents as possible. 
I also checked on various presentations to observe for hitches and interviewed 
the top thirty to thirty-five students to select presidential scholars. The deans 
and I could communicate serious information in a relatively relaxed environ- 
ment. My brief talks provided an opportunity for lighter moments while deliv- 
ering essential messages. To some groups I read an entry from the diary of 
nineteen-year-old Leo Tolstoy, and without revealing his identity, I suggested 
that they bring his ambitions with them to college: 

"How shall I use my time in the... next two years? 

1 . Continue my law studies in order to pass my final 
exam at the University. 

Chapter 8 "His Almost Chosen People' 

2. Study the rudiments of theoretical and practical medicine. 

3. Study languages: French, Russian, German, English, Italian, Latin. 

4. Study the theory and practice of agriculture. 

5. Study history, geography, and statistics. 

6. Study mathematics. 

7. Write a dissertation. 

8. Try to perfect myself in music and art. 

9. Get down my rule of life in writing. 

10. Acquire some knowledge of the natural sciences. 

11. Write something on all of the subjects I study." 

By the sixth or seventh point, most students began to think the aims were 
excessive. They were ready for me to reveal the ruse, that it was written by 
Tolstoy in 1847 when he entered the University of Kazan. 

Another ploy was to mention some of the art at the University — the Japanese 
woodcuts, a Whistler sketch, Phillip Guston's "Lemonade and Doughnuts" 
done in 1947, and the large Helen Frankenthaler painting — the last one I said I 
did not like. While that was always good for a laugh, it also caused the more 
inquisitive to look up these works and to be more aware of the environment 
they were entering. 


(The) "typical Wesley under... knows deep down that Nell Eckley runs things 
around here." 

The Gadfly, The Argus, September 17, 1982 

The cocksure Gadfly misses now and then. Nell did play an important sup- 
porting role during our joint tenure at Illinois Wesleyan, and she understood 
her role and fulfilled it better than many of us officially connected to the 
University. That was to wisely avoid any real or apparent involvement in the 
faculty or administrative machinery, to assist by humanizing relationships 
where she could (including the traditional role of entertaining), and to augment 
volunteer efforts and pick up necessary responsibilities that otherwise went 
undone. The drive on the City Council to close University Street and move on 
with the Quadrangle project would not have happened when it did had she not 
stimulated the IWU League into action. Her life was active and full at the time 
we started — the children were seventeen, almost sixteen, almost fourteen, and 
eleven; there was entertaining to be done and a house to build. As the children 
went off to college (the first in 1969) and completed college (1979), she had pro- 
gressively more time to assist in campus beautification and interior decoration. 


Chapter 8 "His Almost Chosen People" 


Nell was the informal yet real 
construction superintendent on the 
President's House project. The exist- 
ing house was wholly inadequate 
for entertaining and barely handled 
my family. The trustees decided to 
build a new facility after rejecting a 
couple of other alternatives. The 
University architect struck out in 
attempting to design a house — it ran 
50 percent over target — and the 
trustees resolved to use a housing 
consultant and a general contractor. 
Nell became the on-site boss. Daily 
visits to monitor progress during 
1968-69 followed. Workers always 
seemed to be on ''break," and the 
contractor was elusive. He suggest- 
ed he could only be reached before 
5:15 AM because-lie was so busy. 
Nell took him at his word and called 
him at that hour, only to hear a very 
sleepy and sheepish voice at the other end of the line. There were the usual 
number of hitches. When the circular staircase arrived—one of the few extras 
included — we found the general contractor had missed the dimensions; it did 
not fit. Fortunately, the low bidder on the cabinet work was a German- 
American artisan from Peoria, who had worked for us before. He knew how to 
remedy the problem. He also built in a walnut china cabinet and a hand-craft- 
ed pineapple as his gifts to the University. (This was the pineapple the fraterni- 
ties later found so interesting.) Eventually, the work was completed, Nell's lega- 
cy to the campus, and we moved the day after Commencement in 1969. 

In the first year we occupied the new President's House, more than 1,100 
people were entertained in large and small groups in forty-three events. 
Seventeen were sit-down dinners, food was served buffet-style at eighteen 
more activities, and there were overnight guests in addition. That pattern was 
replicated in subsequent years, although the overall number of people may 
have been less and the overnight guests increased after the children departed. 

After Nell spearheaded its redecoration in 1978, the Cartwright Room in the 
Student Center became available for dinners and receptions, and on summer 
occasions the backyard of the President's House was utilized. Her working 
relationships with three successive food service managers — Ed Fridley, Russ 
Mushro, and Mike Welsh — and their student assistants were warm and friend- 
ly. She took an active part in menu selection for all dinners. Recipes and sug- 
gestions flowed in both directions. We enjoyed the opportunity overnight 
accommodations afforded to become better acquainted with more than a dozen 
out-of-town trustees, and it was a privilege for us to have such guests as Helen 

Chapter 8 "His Almost Chosen People" 

Hayes, John Fairbanks (Harvard's China scholar), James Schlesinger, who got 
up early to watch birds, Ralph Abernathy, Josh Logan, Peter Gomes, and 
Jaroslav Pelikan. 

The Illinois Wesleyan University League was the vehicle for organizing 
social activities. It had been founded by Mrs. William J. Davidson, the 
President's wife, in 1931 and was reorganized primarily by League President 
Sarah Burda and Nell in 1969-70 "to work in harmony with the objectives of 
Illinois Wesleyan University and to provide cultural and social opportunities." 
Four social functions were sponsored each year, and special interest groups 
appealed to differing combinations of members. Membership peaked at 143 in 
the mid-1970s when Judy Schnaitter was membership chairman, although it 
was still 122 in 1985-86 despite a decline as more women entered the workforce. 
Newcomers were welcomed the first year without dues or expectations, and 
activities for those interested speeded their inclusion within the Wesleyan com- 

The principal thrust of the League's service activities was directed toward 
various campus beautification projects. These were funded by nominal dues 
collected at the beginning of each year, cake sales to freshmen parents, and 
donated wages earned by augmenting staff at registration periods each fall and 
spring. Other activities included bake sales, book bazaars, and two cookbooks, 
one in 1981 and another in 1985. 

The beautification projects began in 
1969-70 with implementation of a 
plan for the Holmes Hall entrance by 
Rupert and Betty Kilgore and contin- 
ued as the landscaping by Nelva 
Weber unfolded. They included 
plantings in various locations, red- 
wood benches, campus signs, lights 
on the Main Gate, and interior decora- 
tion of the residence hall lounges. 
When two attempts to acquire the 
University seal to mount on 
McPherson Theatre seemed too 
expensive, Nell suggested that 
George Shaver and the maintenance 
staff might design and fabricate one, 
which they did and the League 
financed it. There were several pic- 
ture hanging expeditions by Nell and 
other League members, including the 
Arrah Lee Gaul paintings in the early 
1980s. Nell was frequently seen rid- 
ing around the campus in the truck 
with the grounds foreman exploring 


Chapter 8 "His Almost Chosen People" 

or checking on landscape progress. She worked with the interior decorator on 
projects from the Student Center to the residence halls. Her most harrowing 
experiences took place while assisting the development staff in dealing with the 
household effects included in several estates. These were often sad and emo- 
tional experiences. On our retirement, the trustees recognized her efforts by 
naming the Student Lounge in her honor. 

The cake baking project for freshmen, which Nell initiated in 1971, led to 
interesting ramifications. Volunteers to bake cakes on student birthdays (or 
other occasions) were initially organized by Anne Nott and Loretta Hess. Since 
someone was needed to sell cakes to freshmen parents during summer orienta- 
tion, Nell was drafted. Her job of selling cakes was gradually expanded into an 
effort to reassure parents that someone cared about their students, and that we 
understood their misgivings and apprehensions at this juncture. The means of 
doing this was to introduce various experiences we had encountered in sending 
children off to college. Over the next fifteen years, various adventures and mis- 
adventures of the four Eckley children were related as they attended a dozen 
colleges and universities, including summer and graduate schools, during the 
1969-81 period. Nell's presentation became one of the most popular features of 
the orientation sessions as she added a lighter tone and displayed an under- 
standing of the emotional state of parents. 

For our children, there were both benefits and responsibilities, and I am sure 
we imposed on them excessively, especially in the early years. We tried to be 
represented by some member of the family at practically all events on the cam- 
pus the first year, and the four dutifully complied. We thought it unwise for 
any of the children to attend Wesleyan because of the added burdens on all par- 
ties, although we thought the Wesleyan experience superior to that which they 
encountered elsewhere. There were opportunities of which they took advan- 
tage — Jane studied English in the College Credit in Escrow program following 
her junior year in high school and Paul did the same thing in astronomy, which 
played a minor but important role in enabling him to complete college in three 
years. At different times the two accompanied Jerry Stone on his January travel 
seminar in Europe. During our first year, Rebecca, then eleven, rode her unicy- 
cle around the campus, and The Pantagraph caught her in a photograph, which 
was probably not displeasing to her. When the Lyon & Healy harp was 
acquired by the School of Music with the new building in 1972-73, 1 was pur- 
sued by her (then a high school sophomore) until we found a teacher for her. 
She became a harp major at Indiana University as a result. Bruce Criley assisted 
Paul and a friend in experiments in cell biology with chick embryos. 

The marriage of Paul and Penny Bedford '80 in the spring of 1984 was the 
first event in Evelyn Chapel, before the pews or the organ were installed. The 
contractor and the IWU maintenance staff cooperated in making it useable. 
Music was provided by Penny's father and his woodwind quintet and by 
Rebecca on the harp. Those instruments and the Lord's Prayer response by the 
congregation gave us the first exciting clues of the responsive acoustics of the 
new chapel. Wedding receptions for our three children married in 
Bloomington all occurred in the Main Lounge of the Memorial Student Center 

Chapter 8 "His Almost Chosen People' 

with the special artistic talent of 
Michael Welsh for food and ice 
sculpture fully utilized. 

Occasional tasks for the children 
were varied. Bob removed graffiti 
from campus monuments and art- 
work in 1969, Jane assisted in the 
summer when my secretary was on 
vacation, and all four worked vary- 
ing stints in the food service area, 
not unpleasant when compared to 
detasseling corn. When The Argus 
decried the choice of Edward Rust as 
Commencement speaker in 1974 in 
the last issue published when no 
response was possible, Bob was 
offended and cleverly took the 
writer to task by plastering his rebut- 
tals on every bulletin board. Paul 
encountered a woman exploring his 
chest of drawers during an open 
house. We never figured out what 
she thought she might find. 

The family was helpful to me in many ways that are impossible to recount, 
and I appreciate the sacrifices they were called on to make. Had I been choos- 
ing Nell for her future role twenty-one years before when we were married, I 
could not have done better. She was especially sensitive to the social dynamics 
of our relationships and particularly in helping to keep up with significant fac- 
ulty family milestones and serious illnesses. We did not always succeed, but it 
was better because she was there. 


"If we could first know where we are, and whither we are tending, we could 
then better judge what to do, and how to do it." 

A. Lincoln, House Divided speech, 1858 

Except for the brief military excursion in which many of us were engaged, 
my working life has been divided between higher education, the field of eco- 
nomics, and business. I had taught at Bradley, Harvard, Kansas, and a college 
class in church before joining Wesleyan, and I chose to continue that activity on 
a limited basis. Similarly, my prior business and economics experience led to 
exposure in this area while at Wesleyan, primarily in the form of service on sev- 


Chapter 8 "His Almost Chosen People" 

eral boards of directors. Each of these had some relationship to the perfor- 
mance of my responsibilities at the University. 

Because of my prior involvement in international economics and manage- 
ment, I offered a course in international business at Wesleyan in the fall of 1968 
and continued to do so, with occasional skips, beyond retirement. Obviously, 
the content of the subject changed tremendously through the years, and I had to 
keep up in the field, something which I otherwise had no reason to do. Three 
hundred students in the nineteen course offerings have given me a window on 
Wesleyan undergraduates through the years not possible in any other way. 
They have had their successes: several pursued graduate work in economics or 
business, even more became attorneys, one is a foreign service officer, one a 
vice president of a large company, and another a vice president of a major bank. 
Despite the difficulties of scheduling and the distractions from teaching, there is 
much to be gained from the current perspective of the classroom when the pri- 
mary institutional emphasis is undergraduate education. 

One student in the late 1970s always wore an IRA T- shirt to class. When dis- 
cussing terrorism toward the end of the term I asked if anyone had noticed that 
a student had been wearing a T-shirt advertising a terrorist organization. There 
was silence — the student who had worn the shirt grinned broadly. No one had 
noticed. Our students were not worldly, but they learn. 

When Adlai H. Rust retired from the board of directors of State Farm Mutual 
Automobile Insurance Co. in 1971, Edward Rust invited me to replace him. 
Subsequently, I was elected to four subsidiary company boards and also to that 
of the Foundation. In 1973 after meeting the president of Central Illinois Public 
Service Co. at a dinner-theatre party for a group of Springfield people, I was 
invited to serve on the board. I continue to participate in these boards. For six 
years, I was a member of the board of a local bank, then the McLean County 
Bank, and briefly on the board of Turbodyne Corporation, a Minneapolis elec- 
trical equipment manufacturer, before it was acquired. These experiences creat- 
ed ties to the business community, provided several trustee and development 
contacts, and enabled me to have wider familiarity with insurance, compensa- 
tion and benefit packages, and other matters. I also gained personally from 
these arrangements, but the University was brought closer to the business com- 
munity in the area served by Wesleyan. Inevitably, this played an intangible 
role in placing the University in more direct contact with its natural con- 
stituents and sources of support. 

There were numerous talks to business or professional associations and sev- 
eral consultancies. Following a brief consulting arrangement with the Illinois 
CPA Society, I was asked to address their annual meeting in 1973 on 'The 
Business Environment of the Future/' Commenting on the growing potential 
for an energy crisis and the part being played by the Organization of Petroleum 
Exporting Countries, I concluded that: 

"The point I am making is the following: (1) we have an incipient energy crisis on 
our hands and it is real; (2) increasingly the need for imported crude (oil) will 


Chapter 8 "His Almost Chosen People" 

contribute to the balance of payments and foreign exchange crises with which we 
are already wrestling; and (3) we are placing sizeable economic and political chips 
in the hands of those who have demonstrated the capacity for mischief." 

The speech was four months before the Yom Kippur War and six months 
before oil prices quadrupled. One or two other lonely voices were saying some- 
thing similar in Washington and elsewhere. I am not claiming prescience-I had 
written a dissertation on the oil industry and was current on the subject from 
my international business class. At any rate, nobody rushed to acknowledge 
my warning. 

With these remarks about collateral activities, my narrative on our eighteen- 
year sojourn at Illinois Wesleyan is concluded. I feel fortunate to have been 
chosen for the helm of the University. I was unusually rewarded in that it last- 
ed long enough for me to pursue my inclinations regarding the appropriate 
course of academic direction, supported by a strong cast of faculty and staff, 
largely of my own choosing. It is clear that the period began as an unsettled 
and disordered one in higher education, but we endured together long enough 
to see the unrest subside and to witness and be a part of the changes on the 
other side. 

The task of evaluating the effectiveness and consequences of my leadership 
is obviously a responsibility for others. My chief emphases and most consistent 
efforts were directed toward academic advancement and faculty building, 
increasing the institution's financial strength, and campus beautification, 
embracing the evolution of the Quadrangle. Any accomplishments must be 
generously shared with those who helped to make them possible. When I 
departed, I left the following note for my successors: 

"She is a good ship with a healthy and happy crew, responsive to the rudder, 
but with a certain momentum of her own. Steady as she goes. Best wishes 
and bon voyage." 






Appendix A. 
List of Faculty, 1968-1986 

(The faculty are listed alphabetically by department; the departments are 
alphabetically arranged within the four divisions of the Liberal Arts College; the 
four professional schools follow. In addition to full-time faculty and their years 
of service, several of the longer serving part-time faculty are included). 

The College Of Liberal Arts 

Business and Economics Division 

Director: Robert W. Harrington, 1968-89 

Business Administration (including Accounting and Insurance) 

Balestri, Becky A., 1981-85 
Cummings, C. William, 1978-81 
Evans, Campbell K., 1968-87 
Fields, Jack C, 1983- 
Friedberg, Ruth Ann, 1985- 
Gardner, C. Gregory, 1965-86 
Garrison, Dennis L., 1977-78 

Gunderson, David E., 1980-81 
Hodges, Lloyd C, 1983-86 
Lee, Robert K, 1979-80 
Luerssen, Oliver R., 1944-79 
Lust, John A., 1980-88 
Rodenberg, George W., Jr., 1981-87 
Strand, Donald L., 1968- 


Belskus, Albert W., 1968-69 
Chapman, Margaret L., 1977- 
Gilbert, Geoffrey N., 1974-77 
Harrington, Robert W., 1968-£ 
La Vigne, Dennis R., 1969-74 

Leekley, Robert M., 1974- 
Malko, J. Robert, 1970-74 
Plotnik, Mortin J., 1967-69 
Snyder, Donald C, 1969-70 



Humanities Division 

Directors and Coordinators: 
Justus R. Pearson, 1962-69 

Jerry Stone, Chairman, 1969-71, Coordinator of Liberal Studies, 1971-76, 
Director, 1976-79 

Geoffrey L. Story, 1979-83 
Sue Ann Huseman, 1983-88 


Ball, Travis, Jr., 1966-69 
Barnett, Randall M., 1969-70 
Berkson, Dorothy, 1977-78 
Beutner, Harvey R, 1964-88 
Bowman, Barbara, 1976- 
Bray, Robert C, 1970- 
Bridwell, Oliver C, 1955-69 
Boaz, Mildred M, 1980-81 
Bock, DarilynW., 1971-76 
Burda, Robert W., 1965-80 
Bushman, Mary Ann, 1980- 
DeVore, C. Lynn, 1982-83, 1984- 
Dunn, Allen R., 1984-85 
Engle, John E., 1983-84 

Goldberg, Larry A., 1968-70 
Greer, Sammye C, 1970-82 
Hungerford, Harold, 1969- 
Jackson, K. David, 1968-70 
Jones, J. Robert, 1970-72 
McDonald, William E., 1965-69 
McGowan, James D., 1969- 
Meyers, Joseph H., 1953-76 
Muirhead, Pamela D., 1972- 
Oggel, Elizabeth H., 1945-69 
Osbourne, Karen L., 1981-85 
Pearson, Justus R., 1962-80 
Puett, Amy E., 1969-71 
Schwab, Gweneth B v 1982-83 

Foreign Languages 

Arensbach, Corry, 1969- 

Beckett-Hoffman, Bonnie A., 1977-83 

Evans, Reena D., 1981-82 

Fajardo, Salvador J., 1978-90 

Fogg, Sarah L. 1969-72 

Hengst, Marianne, 1972-77 

Holm, Lydia, 1965-71 

Holt, Candace K., 1980-81 

Huffman, Monique C, 1981-82, 
also part-time 

Huseman, Sue Ann, 1969-89 

Hutter, Harriett, 1966-69 

Jacobson, Margaret D., 1982-86 

Jedan, Dieter, 1972-76 
LeBugle, Andre M., 1972-76 
Lundgren, Thomas E., 1977-78 
MacEwen, Leslie, 1969-72 
McDonald, Jill P. 1978-87 
McMahon, Kathryn K., 1973-75 
Michel, Dieter, 1964-71 
Michel, Margaret D., 1967-69 
Nachtigall, Wilbur, 1969-77 
Paul, Carole Deering, 1976-85 
Plotnik, Marion W., 1967-69 
Prandi, Julie D., 1984- 
Rencurrell, Jose de J., 1967-89 



Rodriguez, Rafael T v 1979-80, 1981-82 
Schlicher, Allaire V., 1971-78 
Siegrist, Leslie L v 1970-72 
Troyanovich, John M., 1971-77 

Van Rest, Monika A., 1977-78 
Vrana, Benjamin W., 1966-69 
Wessler, Judith K., 1983-84 

Colter, Larry W., 1966- 
Gervais, Karen G., 1974-89 
Koehn, Donald B., 1972- 


Meyers, Doris C., 1954-76 
Riggs, Donald R., 1980-81 
Vander Waal, John A., 1960-71 

Carey, Helen, part-time 
Stone, Jerry, 1964-92 
Story, Geoffrey L., 1966- 


White, William L., 1963- 
Whitehurst, James E., 1958-90 

Natural Science Division 


Wayne W. Wantland, 1944-71 
Wendell W. Hess, 1971-77 
Roger H. Schnaitter, 1977-90 


Arteman, Robert L., 1969-75 

Austin, Joseph, 1967-74 

Criley, Bruce B., 1971- 

Criley, Norma J., 1980-81, also part-time 

Darlington, Winthrop W., 1958-79 

Dey, Jonathan P., 1975- 

Franzen, Dorothea S., 1952-77 

Griffiths, Thomas A., 1981- 
Hippensteele, J. Robert, 1974- 
Kulfinski, Frank B., 1960-69 
McArdle, John E., 1977-81 
Verner, Louis, 1979-92 
Wantland, Wayne W., 1944-71 

Bailey, David M, 1980- 
Banfill, Dorothy, 1954-79 
Braught, David C, 1967-85 
Cramer, John A., 1982-86 
Frank, Forrest J., 1965- 
Hess, WendeU W., 1963-89 


Hofreiter, Bernard T., 1979-80 
McLaughlin, Michael P., 1977-78 
Rettich, Timothy R., 1981- 
Starkey, Frank D., 1971-80 
Wilder, Deborah A., 1980-82 



Computer Science 

Wester, Gary W., 1985- 

Home Economics (department discontinued in 1976) 

Foster, Helen, 1964-76 
Upton, Charlotte, part-time 


Coppotelli, Frederic A., 1972-73 
Parr, Phyllis G., 1971-73, 1976-77 
Polites, George W., 1967- 
Pollack, David K, 1985-87 
Sandstrom, Ronald D., 1967-81 
Schuessler, Nicholas, 1969-76 

Smith, William K., 1976-85 
Sot, Richard E., 1982-85 
Stout, Lawrence N., 1977- 
Timm, Mathew T., 1981-82 
Wantland, Evelyn K., 1964-76 
Weiss, Randell H., 1985-86 

Detweiler, Herman L., 1968- 
Kessler, Gary, 1965- 


Kubinec, William R., 1972-74 
Wilson, Raymond G., 1962- 


Eggers, Sharon W., 1980-81, 1984-87, Lubeck, Roger C, 1981-86 
also part-time olsen/ Roger L/ 1%7 _ 71 

Jensen, Carl B., 1968-85 Schnaitter, Roger K, 1969- 

Jones, Duane L., 1971-80 Sellstrom, Gail, 1967-69 

Social Science Division 

Bunyan H. Andrew, 1951-70 

None, 1970-77 

Jerry M. Israel, 1977-81 
John D. Heyl, 1981-88 

Andrew, Bunyan H., 1945-70 
Bushnell, Paul E., 1966- 
Eagan, Eileen M., 1980-81 
Heyl, John D., 1969-88 


Israel, Jerry M., 1974-88 
Leonard, Richard D., 1954-73 
Young, Michael B., 1970- 



Political Science 

Brown, Donald P., 1958-71 
Johnson, Michael W., 1979-83 
Kennedy, Sharon Ann, 1976-79 
Leh, Robert G., 1966- 

Leyh, Gregory A., 1984-89 
Pate, Ridgely H., 1970-76 
Spencer, Jeffrey A., 1966-70 
Wenum, John D., 1971- 


Anderson-Freed, Susan M., 1977- 
(To Computer Science in 1986) 

Cagle, Laurence T., 1978-79 

Dale, Emily Dunn, 1959-90 

Dale, Steven, 1967-72 

Ervin, Delbert, 1984-85 

Goldberg, Linda G., 1972-74 

Matre, Mark D., 1976-77 

Miller, D. Paul, 1960-82 
Noll, C. Edward, 1974-76 
Pape, Max A., 1965-75 
Prendergast, Christopher, 1985- 
Russell, Terrence R., 1972-77 
Sikora, James P., 1979- 
Whitlock, John L., 1982-84 

Other Departments and Library 


Churukian, George A., 1976- 
Claus, Dorothy L., part-time 
Comeau, Raymond H., 1971-76 
Klauser, Lucile, 1948-79 

Miller, N. Emerson, 1960-70 
Pfeltz, Clifford N., 1965-89 
Sedarat, Nassir, 1968-75 
Thomas, Bonnie, 1975- 

Physical Education (Men) 

Bridges, Dennis, 1964- 
(also Athletic Director, 1981-) 

Gramkow, Thomas, 1981-86 

Horenberger, Jack, 1942-81, 
(also Athletic Director) 

Keck, Robert K., 1957-91 
Larson, Donald T., 1954-89 

Physical Education (Women) 

Argo, Kathryn L., 1973-79 
Buchanan, Duane E., 1974-84 
Cothren, Barbara, 1979- 
Cotter, Linda L., 1971-74 

Labuz (Lohrmann), Ann, 1970-73 
Mayhew, Rebecca L., 1984-87 
Niehaus, Marian, 1952-71 
Winkler, Martha E., 1964-70 



Speech (discontinued 1974, became part of Drama School) 

Burt, John ML, 1963-73 
Coursey, Edward R., 1968-73 
Robinson, Marie J., 1950-80 


Rodney J. Ferguson, 1957-72 

Clayton D. Highum, 1972-92 

Bedford, Janet, 1972-86 

Boulton, Earl M, 1969-72 

Delvin, Robert C, 1980- 

Ferguson, Rodney J., 1954-75 

Freeman, Michael, 1971-75 

Frizzell, Robert, 1975-89 

Highum, Clayton D., 1972-92 

Husted, Virginia A., 1930-69 (music 
faculty, early years) 

Mowery, Robert L., 1968- 

Patton, Glenn E., 1969-80 

Vandervoort, Alleyne B., 1959-69 

Westall, John C, 1962- 

Wilkins, Walter R., 1965-71 


Directors: Rupert Kilgore, 1947- 
William J. Lee, 1973-75 
John Mulvany, 1975-78 
Miles C. Bair, 1979- 
Bair, Miles C, 1979- 
Brian, Fred B., 1952-84 
Babcock, H. Lind, 1984-88 
Garvey, Timothy J., 1980- 
Holcombe, Anna C, 1980-84 
Kilgore, Rupert, 1946-71 
Lee, William J., 1973-75 
Martin, Sandra T., 1976-78 

School of Art 

71 McCullough, Edward L., 1966-80 

McNeil, Barton W., 1963-78 

Mendenhall, John P., 1974-75 

Mulvany, John, 1975-78 

Page (Kohn), Donna J., 1972-73, 1978- 
79, also part-time 

Paskus, Benjamin K., 1978-80 

Strandberg, Kevin J., 1979- 

Taulbee, Ann E., 1984- 

Thompson, Walter, 1972-76 

Vestuto, Anthony A., 1962-72 

Webster, Lynn, 1981-82 



School of Drama 

John Ficca, 1967-77 

Carole A. Brandt, 1977-82 

Clair R Myers, 1982-88 
Ackerman, Diane L., 1980-81 
Ascareggi, James, 1963-71 
Baird, Charles W., 1985-86 
Bergstrom, John W., 1966-69 
Brandt, Carole A., 1975-82 
Burton, Gary D., 1972-77 
Clark, John L., 1976-88 
Cobb, Thomas L., 1974-78 
Comeaux, Patricia A., 1981-84 
Culver, Max K., 1978-82 
Curtis, Julia M., 1974-75 
Cushman, Jerome J., 1973-74 
Drake, Roger E., 1975-77 
Dunn, Joseph C. (Jason), 1979-85 
Ficca, John, 1956- 
Goetz, Kent L., 1985-88 

Guskin, Harold S., 1971-72 
Jenkins, Charles A., 1969-71 
Kulustian, Paula, 1979-80 
Moffitt, Mary Anne, part-time 
Myers, Clair R, 1982-88 
Nelson, Denise K., 1978-79 
Norrenbrock, Paul A., 1973-75 
Pisoni, Edward, 1969-73 
Ripa, Augustine, 1977-79 
Romersberger, Sara J., 1980-89 
Roos, Norvid, 1967-69 
Seifert,JeraldL., 1972-75 
Stark, John C, 1982-85 
Utterback, James W., 1977-78 
Van Pelt, Virginia, 1985-86 
Wang, Yun-Yu, 1984-85 
Wichern, Lynn J., 1972-73 
Wood, Carolyn, 1970-72 

School of Music 

Carl M. Neumeyer, 1952-72 

J. William Hipp, 1973-76 

Albert C. Shaw, 1976-78 

Charles G. Boyer, 1979-86 

Bankert, Robert, 1959-86 

Birden, Susan K., 1980-81 

Boyer, Charles G., 1979-86 

Brandon, Susan, 1967- 

Campbell, C. Lawrence, 1978- 

Charles, Henry, 1945-85 

Creswell, Bradley, L., part-time 

Creswell, Mary K., 1985-86 

Donalson, Robert P. 1964- 

Drexler, Maxine, part-time 
Drexler, R. Dwight, 1934-79 
Eggleston, Steven W., 1979- 
Erickson, Ruth, 1952-77 
Ferreira, David C, 1973-74 
Gehrenbeck, David M., 1971- 
Gilmore, Earl E., 1968-69 
Gray, Donald N., 1971-72 
Havens, Claudia R, 1968-69 
Henrikson, Martha L., 1984-86 
Hessert, Norman D., 1965-71 
Heyboer, Paul R., 1966-78 
Hipp, J. William, 1973-76 



Hishman, Richard B., 1966-92 
Johnson, Billie Jean, 1976-77 
Kreiger, Ruth R., 1956-77 
Luke, Robert A., 1977-85 
Mancinelli, Mario V., 1948-80 
McCord, Lillian M., 1946-71 
McGrosso, John J., 1958-81 
McNella, Rico B., 1980-84 
Neumeyer, Carl M, 1952-72 
Nott, David, 1964- 
Plum, Abram M., 1965-92 

Sample, Phillip G., 1978-82 
Scifres, Sammy G., 1967- 
Shaw, Albert C., 1976-78 
Shaw, Carmen, 1969-70 
Snyder, Linda J., 1977-88 
Streeter, Thomas W., 1971- 
Thibodeaux, Carole, 1964-88 
Tucker, Todd M, 1981- 
Watkins, Robert Bedford, 1956-88 
West, William R., 1982- 
Willis, Maurice M., 1946-79 

School of Nursing 


Mary D. Shanks, 1960-76 

Patricia Small, 1977-81 

Alma Woolley, 1981-86 
AUen, Eleanor, 1965-76 
Baldwin, Kathleen A., 1978-82 
Baumgart, Jacqueline A., 1976-78 
Biehler, Barbara A., 1976-87 
Bosold, Susan M., 1982-84 
Brue, L. Jane, 1979- 
Clark, Marsha A., 1976-78 
Cohen, Felissa R., 1967-70 
Crouse, Wanda M., 1964-73 
Crowley (Cox), Cheryl K., 1973-77 
Daniel, Annamma, 1970-71 
Danou, Nancy H., 1968-69 
dela Torre, Irene G., 1976-85 
Dennis, Connie M., 1973- 
Drake, Bernadine L., 1967-73 
Drummet, Karen M., 1972-73, 1975-76 
Dulle, Judith M., 1979-83 
Durham, Jerry C, 1983-90 
Gordon, Jane M, 1964-76 
Green, Patti A., 1968-69 

Goeppner, Patricia A., 1966-69 
Hartranft, Annabelle L., 1960-75 
Hatton, Jean H., 1976-79 
Hartweg, Donna L., 1978- 
Hilton, Alberta, 1962-82 
Horn (Beard), Judith, 1973-75 
Jimison, Carmin, 1965-78 
Johnston, Anne W., 1966-72, 1973-74 
Kohal (Hatcher), Betty J., 1978- 
Krueger (Watson), Jean M., 1970-76 
Landis, Leah D., 1985-86 
Laninga, Romola, 1967-69 
Larson, Mary C, 1966-69 
Lueckenotte, Annette G., 1980-86 
Metcalfe (Neubauer), Sharie A., 1979- 
Meyers, Janet J., 1971-72 
Morgan, Brenda, 1968-69 
Nehring, Wendy M., 1983-85 
Norton, Helen D., 1972-78 
Olson, Diana, 1969-72 
Page, Bonnelyn, 1971-72 
Pflederer, Mildred R., 1966-71 
Reasor, Marilynn R., 1974-75 

Renner, Charla E., 1983- 
Rentfro, Loramae, 1976-78 
Reuther, Mary, 1974-79 
Riggs, Lena A., 1973-79 
Shanks, Mary D., 1960-76 
Small, Patricia, 1977-81 
Sullivan-Taylor, Lois, 1977-87 


Swift (Reber), Alice E., 1972-92 
Westcot, Lynn B., 1969-78 
White, Catherine, 1967-69 
Wisner, Patricia A., 1970-74 
Woodtli, Margaret A., 1978-83 
Woolley, Alma, 1981-86 



Appendix B. 
List of Administrative Staff, 1968-1986 

(Staff supervisors are listed chronologically by function. Academic deans and 
the chaplain were also listed in the faculty section. Hall directors, whose 
tenure was usually from one to three years, are not shown). 


Deans of the University 

Everette L. Walker, 1961-1970 

John L. Clark, 1970-76 

Wendell W. Hess, Associate Dean, 1974-76, Dean, 1976-89 

Jerry M. Israel, Associate Dean, 1981-88 

Administrative Assistants 
George A. Vinyard, 1972-74 
Darryl D. Pratscher, 1974-76 
Randy Farmer, Assistant to the President, 1976-81 
Anne Balsamo, 1981-83 


Patricia Reid, Assistant Registrar, 1964-69 
James R. Barbour, 1968- 

Career Education 
Kathleen Romani, Director, 1976-83 
Kathy Lindholm, Assistant Director, 1980-81 
Betty G.Rademacher, Assistant Director, 1981-83, Director, 1983-90 
Laura A. Cornille, Assistant Director, 1983-84 
John A. Chambers, Assistant Director, 1984-87 


Director: James R. Routi, 1969- 

Counselors, Associate and Assistant Directors: 

David Hughes, 1962-78 Marsha Guenzler, 1978-80 

James R. Routi, 1963-69 Craig Partridge, 1979-85 

J. W. Price, 1968-74 Penelope D. Bedford (Eckley), 1980-85 

Alta Stopford, 1968-72 Karen S. Monroe, 1980-82 

Lee York, 1968-88 Jerry W. Pope, 1980- 

David Coates, 1972-73 Robert P. Murray, 1982- 

Dale W. Wolf, 1973-85 Marianne T. Hohe, 1985-87 

Paul Schley, 1974- David E. King, 1985-86 

Daniel C. Walls, 1976-80 Scott A. Siebring, 1985- 



Phillip W. Kasch, 1948-81 

Kenneth C. Browning, 1981- 

Max Starkey, Comptroller, 1957- 

Ronald Campbell, Central Services, Bookstore, 1958- 

Norman Price, Bookstore, 1968-74 

Don Eddy, Student Center, 1960-68 

Jeanne Johnson, Computer Services, 1968- 

James C. Swanson, Personnel, 1972-73 

Fred G. Weppler, Printer, 1969-92 

Physical Plant: 
C. E. Shiers, Superintendent, 1958-76 

George Shaver, Planning and Engineering, 1971-83 

Millard C. Jorgenson, Jr., Director, 1983- 

Roger G. Brucker, Office Manager, 1960- 

William H. Tabb, Heating Plant, 1961-87 

Walter J. Madsen, Maintenance Foreman, 1966-83 

Wesley Hearon, Maintenance Foreman, 1983- 

Lloyde D. Howell, Custodial Foreman, later 

Operations Support Coordinator,! 971 -88 

David A. Shiers, Custodial Foreman, 1985- 



Gary Johnson, Grounds Foreman, 1971-74 
Michael Meismer, Grounds Foreman, 1974-79 
Randy Johnson, Grounds Foreman, 1979-80 
Ron Traughber, Grounds Foreman, 1980-88 



Lee W. Short, 1968-75 

Larry M. Hitner, 1975-83 

Richard B. Whitlock, 1983- 

James Ridenour, Assistant and Associate Director, 1967-73 

Robert H. Smith, Deferred Giving, 1968-69 

Willard E. Cavin, Deferred Giving, 1969-76 

Richard B. Whitlock, Deferred Giving, 1976-83 

Edward L. Recker, Capital Funds, 1973-74 

Lee W. Short, Community Relations, 1975-78 

Benjamin J. Rhodes, Educational Fund, 1978-83, 
Deferred Giving, 1983-90, Director of Development, 1990- 

Elizabeth B. Melton, Educational Fund, 1983- 

Donald Reid, Alumni, 1961-69 

Robert M. Montgomery, Alumni, 1969-73 

Harry R. Lovell, Alumni, 1973- 

Edgar Alsene, Publicity and Sports Information, 1965-88 

Henry Etter, University Information, 1965-69 

Jerry Bidle, Public Relations, 1969-91 

Samuel A. Lynde, Publications, 1969-70 

Colette Sicks, Publications, 1971-88, Writer, part-time 

Student Services 

Anne Meier hofer, 1946-69 

Jerry C.Jensen, 1969-75 

Glenn J. Swichtenberg, 1975- 
Virginia E. Smith, Dean of Women, 1966-70 
Jerry Jensen, Dean of Men, 1967-69 
Hal B. Wassink, Associate Dean, 1969-73 
Judith E. Vance, Assistant Dean, 1970-74 


Claudia Grace, Assistant Dean, 1975-77 
Margaret Balistreri, Assistant Dean, 1977-80 
Patricia Kendig, Assistant Dean, 1980-85 
Carl F. Teichman, Assistant Dean, 1985-89 

Assistant to the President, 1989- 
G. Gary Grace, Residential Programs, 1973-77 
Gayle Buckley, Residential Programs, 1977-80 
Darcy Greder, Residential Programs, 1980- 
James Hartsook, Student Activities, 1969-72 
Anne Meierhofer, Career Planning, 1969-74 
Katheryn McClintock, Career Planning, 1974-79 
Lynn Nichelson, Student Financial Aid, 1962- 
John King, Director of Security, 1966-70 
Frank C. Borth, Jr., Director of Security, 1970-75 
Donald B. Rogers, Director of Security, 1976-79 
Michael P. Norrington, Director of Security, 1979-81 
Charles B. Adam, Director of Security, 1981- 
Velma J. Arnold, University Nurse, 1942-71 
Judith Jefferson, University Nurse, 1971-78 
Delores Helm, Assistant and University Nurse, 1972- 
Judy Hendricks, Assistant University Nurse, 1972-73 
Mary Kay Hirsbrunner, Assistant University Nurse, 1978-86 
William L. White, Chaplain, 1963- 



Appendix C. 
List of Trustees, 1968-1986 

(Trustees are listed alphabetically with their principal occupations. Location is 
shown only for those outside Bloomington-Normal). 

Allison, Paul G., 1953-70 

Farm owner and operator; Secretary, Interstate Fire and Casualty Co. 

Anderson, Paul G., 1971-77, President, Hasenwinkle Grain Co. 

Anderson, Scott, 1958-76, 
Physicist, Anderson Physics Laboratories, Inc., Champaign, Illinois 

Armstrong, Flora H., 1976-91, Businesswoman 

Bates, Rex James, 1978-, 
Financial Vice President and Vice Chairman, State Farm Mutual 
Automobile Insurance Co. 

Bedell, H. Jean, 1962-71, President, Bedell Manufacturing Co. 
Anaheim, California 

Bennett, W. W., 1959-74 

Pastor, First United Methodist Church, Rock Island 

Assistant to the Bishop, Central Illinois Conference, Springfield, Illinois 
Bicket, James H., 1949-72 

Executive Secretary, Scottish Rite Temple 
Boies, Wilber H., 1979-85 

Farm Manager, Gridley, Illinois 
Borsch, Reuben, 1960-75 

Attorney, Winston, Strawn, Smith & Patterson, Chicago, Illinois 

Bortell, James B., 1982-92 

Pastor, United Methodist Churches, Gridley and Lincoln 
District Superintendent, Champaign, Illinois 

Bower, Marvin D., 1976- 
Executive Vice President, State Farm Life Insurance Co. 



Brandt, William R., 1977-83 

Attorney, Livingston, Barger, Brandt, Slater and Schroeder 
Bulkeley, Kenneth, 1952-79 

President, American Sanitary Manufacturing Co., Abington, Illinois 

Burow, George E., 1966-71, Managing Editor, The Commercial News 

Danville, Illinois 
Butz, Vernon G., 1967-77, Attorney, Kankakee, Illinois 
Campbell, Helen Goldsworthy (Mrs. Robert E.), 1980-92 
Homemaker, Civic, and Church Volunteer, Peoria, Illinois 
Campbell, Melba (Mrs. William R), 1974-83, Housewife, Belleville, Illinois 
Cate, Ronald B., 1984- 

Director, Customer and Community Relations, 
Illinois Bell Telephone Co., Chicago, Illinois 

Cloyd, Luanne J. (Dole), 1982-84, Housewife, Peoria, Illinois 

Colwell, R. Forrest, 1963-78 
President, The Colwell Companies, Champaign, Illinois 

Cribbet, John, 1970-88 
Dean, College of Law, later Chancellor, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 

Danielson, Raymond D., 1966-72 

Regional Vice President (Illinois), State Farm Insurance Companies 

Davis, Robert E., 1981- 
President, R. E. Davis Chemical Corp., Oakbrook, Illinois 

Dees, David P., 1976-91 

District Superintendent, Mattoon, Pastor, First United Methodist Church, Normal 
DibreU, Harvey, 1968-82 

Pastor, United Methodist Churches, Casey, East Peoria, and Leroy, Illinois 
Dickinson, John T., 1960-85 

Vice President and General Counsel, Union Insurance Group 
Drake, William M., Jr., 1977-84 

Architect, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Chicago, Illinois 
Fleming, Austin, 1974-78 

Attorney, The Northern Trust Co., Chicago, Illinois 
Folse, J. Roland, 1985-87 

Chairman, Department of Surgery, Southern Illinois 

University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois 
Franklin, Elmo, 1983-87 

President, Field Electronics Corp., Farmer and Agribusiness 



Gantz, Richard H., 1965-75 

Farmer, Hickory Hill Farm, Deland, Illinois 
Goebel, William M, 1964- 

Attorney, Dunn, Goebel, Ulbrich, and Hundman 
Harris, Samuel L., 1978-81 

President, Moline National Bank, Moline, Illinois 
Hart, Craig C., 1981- 

President, Champion Federal Savings & Loan Association 
Hartman, Alvin H., 1966-72 

Vice President, Cahners Publishing Co., Inc., Boston, Massachusetts 
Henning, E. Hugh, 1965- 

Partner, Henning, Strouse & Jordan, Certified Public Accountants 
Hess, Wayne C, 1968-78 

District Superintendent, Bloomington, United Methodist Church 
Hodapp, Leroy C, 1976-84 

Bishop, Illinois Area, United Methodist Church, Springfield, Illinois 
Hodge, Harold C, 1959-75 

Professor of Pharmacology, School of Medicine and 

Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 

University of California Medical School, San Francisco 
Hoffman, Edward L., 1968-76 

Pastor, Wesley United Methodist Church, Bloomington 

District Superintendent, Galesburg, Illinois 
Hull, J. Richard, 1977-90 

Corporate Counsel and Secretary, American Hospital 

Supply Corp.; Senior Vice President and General 

Counsel, Household International, Chicago, Illinois 
Ives, Timothy R., 1984-87 

President, Bloomington Broadcasting Corp. 
James, J. Robert, 1972-83 

President, McLean County Bank 
Jones, John I., 1968-71 

President, Illinois State Bank of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 
Kemp, Glenn, 1963-72 

President, Peoples Bank of Lexington, Lexington, Illinois 
Kriegsman, John C, 1966-69 

Vice President, Kriegsman Transfer Co., Pekin, Illinois 



Kulier, Charles P., 1972-75 

Senior Research Chemist, Parke, Davis & Co., St. Clair Shores, Michigan 
Kuser, R. George, 1972-77 

Publisher, Troy Daily News, Troy, Ohio 

Publisher, Trenton Times, Trenton, New Jersey 
Lancaster, Bertis L., 1981- 

Pastor, Wesley United Methodist Church, Bloomington 
Leach, Shelton B., 1968-70 

President, National Bank of Bloomington 

Logan, C. Sumpter, 1978-81 

Vice President, Marketing and Customer Service, 
General Telephone Company of Illinois 

Lohman, Walter R., 1969-84 

President, First National Bank of Springfield, Springfield, Illinois 
Maitland, John W., Jr., 1983- 

Farmer and State Senator 
Marston, Roland F., 1975-84 

Executive Vice President, State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Co. 
Martin, C. Virgil, 1950-71 

President, Carson Pirie Scott & Co., Chicago, Illinois 
Mayfield, Robert G., 1959-69 

Assistant to the President, Asbury Theological, Seminary, Wilmore, Kentucky 
McKnight, Sidney A., 1971-77 

President, Montgomery Ward & Co., Chicago, Illinois 
Mecherle, Rosamund (Mrs. W. Harold), 1963-73 

Housewife, Heyworth, Illinois 
Meeker, Robert E., 1982- 

Vice President, TRW Inc., Redondo Beach, California 
Merwin, Davis U., 1970-87 

Publisher, The Pantagraph 
Merwin, Loring C, 1947-70 

President, The Pantagraph 
Monge, Dominick, 1972-90 

President, United Industrial Syndicate, Inc., New York, New York 
Naumann, William L., 1971-83 

Chairman, Caterpillar Tractor Co., Peoria, Illinois 
Newhall, Richard M., 1975-84 

Pastor, Wesley United Methodist Church, Bloomington , , , 


North, Jack B., 1978-81 

District Superintendent, United Methodist Church, Pontiac, Illinois 
Pace, O.B., Jr., 1963-82 

Attorney, Pace and McCuskey, Lacon, Illinois 

Pitcher, Dale E., 1965-80 

Director, Central Illinois Conference Council, United Methodist Church; 
District Superintendent, Champaign 

Puffer, Noble J., 1951-72 

Educational Supervisor, Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, Illinois 
Randall, W. Clark, 1971-75 

Vice President, Hallmark Cards, Inc., Kansas City, Missouri 
Reardon, Robert M., 1978- 

Ophthalmologist, Gailey Eye Clinic, Ltd. 
Remo, John W., 1985- 

Radiologist, Diagnostic Medical Imaging, Inc., Lafayette, Indiana 
Roll, Lyle C, 1973-77 

Retired Chairman, The Kellogg Co. 

Battle Creek, Michigan 
Rowland, William C, 1970-72 

President, General Telephone Company of Illinois 
Russell, George G., 1974-86 

Minister, United Methodist Churches, Taylorville and 

Laurel, Springfield; District Superintendent, Pontiac, Illinois 
Rust, Edward B., 1970-85 

President, State Farm Insurance Companies 
Rust, Edward B., Jr., 1985- 

President, State Farm Insurance Companies 
Schneider, Clifford E., 1967-88 

Attorney, Davis & Morgan, Peoria, Illinois 
Scully, Olivia (Mrs. Peter), 1972-84 

Housewife, Dwight, Illinois 
Sheldon, Chester E., 1980-86 

Director, Central Illinois Conference Council, United Methodist Church 
Shirk, Russell O., 1964-71 

President, Shirk Products, Inc. 
Smith, Sidney G., 1971- 

Pediatrician, Carbondale Clinic, Carbondale, Illinois 



Tombaugh, Reid, 1968-74 

Tombaugh Farm Management, Pontiac, Illinois 
Tryon, Richard R., Jr., 1979 
President, The Colwell Companies, Champaign, Illinois 
Underwood, Robert C, 1985-88 

Retired Justice, Illinois Supreme Court 
Velde, James R., 1981-84 

Retired Senior Vice President, United Artists Corp., North Palm Beach, Florida 
Vial, Richard E., 1984- 

Farm Management, Pontiac, Illinois 
Vinyard, George A., 1977- 

Attorney, Sachnoff, Weaver, Rubenstein, Chicago, Illinois 
Wall, Bernard E., 1974-78 

Wall, Bernard T., 1984-87 

Attorney, Winston & Strawn, Chicago, Illinois 
Waltz, Alan K., 1984- 

Executive Director, General Board of Discipleship, United Methodist Church 

Nashville, Tennessee 
Webb, Lance, 1964-76 

Bishop, Illinois Area, United Methodist Church, Springfield, Illinois 
Weeks, Robert W., 1972-91 

Vice President and General Counsel, Deere & Co., Moline, Illinois 

White, James K., 1966-75 

District Superintendent, Bloomington, United Methodist Church; 
Pastor, Grace United Methodist Church, Pekin, Illinois 

White, Woodie W., 1984-92 

Bishop, Illinois Area, United Methodist Church, Springfield, Illinois 
Wilkins, David G., 1983-89 

Attorney, Strauss, Sulzer, Shapiro, and Wilkins, Chicago, Illinois 

Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Michigan 
Wilson, Claire E. (Lodal), 1973-82 

Teacher, Hamden, Connecticut, Ripton, Vermont 



Appendix D. 
Vita — Robert S. Eckley 


September 4, 1921, Kankakee, Illinois 


Nell B. Mann of Houston, Texas, March 28, 1947 


Robert, Jane, Paul, Rebecca 


Peoria High School, 1939 

Bradley University, B.S. in Economics, 1942 

University of Minnesota, M.B.A., 1943 

Harvard University, M.A. and PhD. in Economics, 1948 and 1949. 
Dissertation: The U.S. Petroleum Industry in Transition: 1900 to 1920. 



Military Service: 

To Lt.(jg) U.S. Coast Guard Reserve, 
Assistant Engineer, USS Davenport, 1943-46. 

Positions Held: 

Harvard University, Teaching Fellow in Economics, 1948-49. 

University of Kansas, Assistant Professor of Economics, 1949-51. 

Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Industrial Economist, 1951-54 

Caterpillar Tractor Co., Manager, Business Economics Department, 1954-68. 

Illinois Wesleyan University, President, 1968-86. 

The Brookings Institution, Visiting Fellow in Economics, 1986-87. 

Illinois Wesleyan University, Adjunct faculty, 1968-, course in 
International Business. 


Economic Development in Southwestern Kansas, Part I, The Economy of 
Southwestern Kansas, with Jack Chernick, 1951. 

Part III, Mineral Resources and Industries, 1955. 

Part V, Agriculture, with W. James Foreman, 1951. 

Part VIII, Financial and Capital Facilities, 1953. 

(Lawrence: University of Kansas). 

'The Employment Multiplier in Wichita/ 7 Monthly Review, Federal Reserve 
Bank of Kansas City, Sept. 1951. 

Review of The Process of Economic Growth, by W.W. Rostow, 
Economic Development and Cultural Change, Feb. 1953. 

'The Demand for New Housing," The Appraisal Journal, July, 1953. 

"Oil Production Loans," Monthly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, 
Feb. 1954, republished in the Northwest Oil and Gas Report. 

Review of Energy and Society — the Relationship between Energy, Social Change, 
and Economic Development, by Fred Cottrell, 
The American Economic Review, June 1956. 

Review of 'The Growth of Industrial Economies, by W.G. Hoffmann, 
The American Economic Review, Dec. 1959. 

"Sales Forecasting in Specific Business Situations," 
Business Horizons, Feb. 1961, Special Issue. 

"Consumer Demand Will Rise," U.S. News and World Report, 
March 12, 1962. 



"Long Range Planning in the Capital Goods Industries/' 
1963 Proceedings of the National Association of Business Economists. 

"Company Action to Stabilize Employment," Harvard Business Review, 
July- August 1966. 

"Import Quotas Threaten American Exports and Jobs," 

Testimony before the U.S. Senate Finance Committee, October 20, 1967, 
published by Caterpillar Tractor Co. and by Steel, April 1, 1968. 

Review of The Academic Mysteryhouse: The Man, the Campus, and Their New Search 
for Meaning, by Robert Merrill Holmes, Notre Dame Journal of Education, 
Spring 1972. 

"The Business Environment of the Future," The CPA Profession in Illinois in 1990, 
the Report to the Directors, Illinois Society of Certified Public Accountants, 
May 1973. 

"Liberal Arts Colleges: Can They Compete?" The Brookings Review, Fall 1987. 

"Caterpillar's Ordeal: Foreign Competition in Capital Goods," 
Business Horizons, March /April 1989. 

Global Competition in Capital Goods: An American Perspective, 
Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books, 1991. 

Other Activities: 

Peoria Mayor's Commission on Human Relations, 1962-63. 

Bradley United Christian Foundation, President, 1965-68. 

Illinois Council of Churches, First Vice President,l 968-70. 

Methodist Medical Center of Illinois, Peoria, Board of Trustees, 1968-80. 

State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Co., Director, 1971- 

State Farm Life and Accident Assurance Co., Director, 1972- 

State Farm Fire & Casualty Co., Director, 1976- 

State Farm Life Insurance Co., Director, 1976- 

State Farm Annuity and Life Insurance Co., Director, 1982- 

State Farm Companies Foundation, Director, 1979- 

Central Illinois Public Service Co., Director, 1973- 

National Association of Schools and Colleges of the 
United Methodist Church, President, 1974-75. 

Turbodyne Corporation, Director, 1975-76. 

McLean County Bank, Director, 1976-82. 



Phi Kappa Phi Alumni Award, Bradley University, 1966. 
Distinguished Alumni Award, Bradley University, 1972. 
Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters, Illinois Wesleyan University, 1988. 

Professional Associations: 

American Economic Association 

National Association of Business Economists 

American Statistical Association